DATE DUE 1
UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS
^ ^ E VlHI -^^ ^
ISSUED BY THE
flyrsbire Breeders* H$$ociatiol«.
BRANDON PUBLISHING COMPANY.
(o O (o . A. ^
A w 7a-
The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Ayrshire
Breeders' Association was held January 24th, 1900, in
the parlor of the United States Hotel, Boston, Mass., in
response to call of the secretary and was called to order
by the president, ly. S. Drew, at 2 p. m.
The roll call was responded to by the following
members in person :
Clark, Franklin P.
Knnis, Alfred A.
Fletcher, Etna J.
Garvin, W. R.
Hayes, Charles S.
Joslin, H. S.
Magie, J. O.
Sage, Charles D.
Wells, S. M.
Winsor, Nicholas S.
Yeaton, Geo. H.
The following members responded by proxy :
Drew, L. S.
Fletcher, Geo. A.
French, J. D. W.
Hayes, Charles H.
Piper, Anson C.
Smith, Daniel A.
Arnold, Geo. W.
Babcock, F. M.
Blodgett, H. W.
Bowker, Geo. H.
Boynton, C. H.
Cloud, James & Son
Converse, J. F.
Cornell, F. P.
Ayer, H. S.
Bacon, P. K.
Blodgett, J. W.
Bowen, Edward S.
Butterfield, Jerome F.
Casterline, J. Andrew
Coldron, J. N.
Cookingham, H. W.
Curtis, L. W.
Dorn, Elmer J.
;ij / 4 ^'
Foote, T. L.
Gold, T. S.
Harrington, H. A.
Krebs, J. DeWitt
Norton, W. H.
Reeves C. Mc
Scribner, G. S.
Shinier, B. Luther
Spalding, ly. C.
Stowell, L. D.
Underbill, C. S.
Watson, H. R. C.
Foss, J. M.
Hunt, A. W.
Jackson, AV^ard R.
Larned, J. H.
Peck, C. L.
Pierce, Geo. H.
Proctor, Fletcher D.
Scott, John W.
Sears, B. C.
Smith, E. A.
Smith, Peter D.
Stevens, Wm. Stanford
Tubbs, Ambie S.
Whitney, C. P.
The following breeders of A3^rshire cattle, not mem-
bers of the Association, were present :
Samuel G. Copeland, West Bridgewater, Mass.
B. F. Barnes, Haverhill, Mass.
W. I. Bartholomew, Putnam, Conn.
John T. Wade, Taunton, Mass.
Aaron Gay, Stoughton, Mass.
Davis Copeland, Campello, Mass.
F. C. Pierce, Concord, Mass.
Thomas A. lyillibridge, Norwood, Mass.
Benjamin F. Davis, South Lee, N. H.
Leonard H. Kimball, Haverhill, Mass.
Harry B. Carter, North Barrington, N. H.
Frank T. Moore, West Peabody, Mass.
Chauncey Gleason, Haverhill, Mass.
K. E. Saw3^er, Atkinson, N. H.
It is with feelings of sadness that I have to record
the loss of our treasurer, Mr. Henry K. Smith, who died
this last fall. He was a man that commanded our re-
spect for his strict integrity and care in business, and
acquaintances found him a genial and true friend, and
we, who knew him well, shall miss him. I have a no-
tice here I would like to read from the Providence Jour-
nal, and after that to move that a committee be appointed
by the chair consisting of two, wdio shall draft proper
resolutions in regard to Mr. Smith's death. The secre-
tary read the following :
HENRY E. SMITH, DIED SEPT. 23d, 1899.
Whereas, it has pleased the Great Ruler over all in
whom we live and have our being to call Henry E. Smith,
our friend, fellow citizen, director and president to the
Divine Beyond, we hereby desire to express our esteem
and appreciation for him as a man, citizen and officer of
the bank, and to commemorate the pleasant memories
of our associations with him by recording this testimo-
nial in the records of the National Exchange bank and
publishing the same in the Providence Daily Journal
and the Pascoag Herald.
We also, as a Board of Directors, hereby extend to
the family and relatives of the deceased our sympathy
and condolence in their unexpected bereavement.
N. S. WINSOR, )
A. P. MOWRY, - Committee
M. I. MOWRY, 3
The President — I appoint Obediah Brown and
Mr. French to draw up those resolutions.
The membership of the Association has been in-
creased by the addition of the following :
Geo. Davidson, Fairfax, P. Q.
Edward Kemp, New York.
E. A. Schouten, Cortland, N. Y.
John W. Scott, Austin, Minn.
William Jay, Katonali, N. Y.
Franklin Doane, Middletown, N, Y.
N. E. Sears, Elmwood, Conn.
Howard Cook, Beloit, Ohio.
George E. Pike, Gouverneur, N. Y.
Ira W. Jones, Alfred, N. Y.
Elmer J. Dorn, Johnstown, N. Y.
Beside the death of our treasurer I have had only
the death of Henry Thorp, Charlotte, Vt., reported.
Volume XII is printed and about i,ooo animals al-
ready- recorded for Volume XIII. The plan of issuing
an attractive year book has proved a success, and has
done much good I believe. For 1898 we issued 500
which proved not enough, so in 1899 we issued 1,000
copies and the}^ are all gone. I know of no wa}^ we can
scatter information for so little money as in the issue of
an attractive year book, but the trouble is to obtain
good photographs and records of the dairy 3deld of
We h'ive a good many photographs sent us, and
they look as though the cows were good ones, and if the
artist had known how to pose her he could have taken a
desirable picture. It needs a large photograph to get a
good half-tone, also the cow should stand in a graceful
position. A side view, a little to the rear and on a level
is the best.
I cannot understand wh}^ it should be so difficult to
obtain reliable milk and butter records, and it seems
strange that when the Association offers such induce-
ments to breeders to test their cows that so few aA'ail
themselves of this opportunit^^ for there is nothing that
attracts buyers like a milk and butter record and it is
not necessary that it should show wonderful cows.
I think Mr. Drew and Mr. Yeaton would both tell
you that the records of their herd which they have pub-
lished have been the direct means of bringing them
many customers, and I believe the fact of their being
sold short always is largely due to the printed records
of their cows.
A good many Ayrshires have been brought in from
Canada the past year and one importation from Scot-
land. This herd, numbering about a dozen, w^as brought
over by Mr. John R. Valentine of Bryn Mawr, Pa. I
saw them when in quarantine at Garfield, N. J., and
they looked like strong constitutional cows and a good
type of the Scotch-bred cows. They were all of them
dry and looked to be heavy in calf. I also saw a good
many in Canada that had been recently imported and
most of those had the same appearance of the Scotch
type. Some of the Canadians promised to make tests
and records of their imported cows and send them to me,
but as yet I have not received any. There seems to be
a good deal of inquiry for Aj^rshires and some sales, es-
pecially to go west. I lately shipped a carload to Santa
Barbara, Cal., about half of them being bulls, and most
of them consigned to parties who want them to cross on
Mr. Henry Wade of Toronto is trying to consoli-
date the Canada herd-books under one head at Toronto
and cut out everything that does not trace to importa-
tion. His efforts are meeting with success, and his late
volumes are recording only such cattle as have a clear
pedigree tracing to importation. .
The States are Canada's best market and she wishes
to place her herd-book on a similar footing with ours to
inspire confidence and attract buyers.
REPORT OF FAIR=GROUND TEST, I899.
In accordance with the vote of the iVssociation, at
its annual meeting, held February i. 1899, your com-
mittee issued the following circular :
Ayrshire Breeders' Association,
• Brandon, Vt., Februarj^ 15, 1899.
The Aj^rshire Breeders' Association offers a special
premium for the season of 1899 of $25 00 — $15.00 to first
and $10.00 to second — to the two A^^rshire cows, regis-
tered in the A3^rsliire Record, that shall score the high-
est from one day's milking on your Fair Ground at
the time of holding your Fair, the butter fat, not to fall
below 3.70 per cent, butter fat as determined by the Bab-
cock test, and the award to be decided by the following
SCAEE OF POINTS :
For each 20 da3^s since calving, - - i point.
For each 15 days of gestation, - - - i ''
For each pound of milk in 24 hours, - i "
For each pound of butter fat in 24 hours , - 20 points.
Provided, however, that your Fair Association will
offer a like amount, making the whole premium offered
amount to $30.00 to first and $20.00 to second, and that
your Fair Association take the full charge oi the testing,
and return a full official report of the test to the Secre-
tary of the A3Tshire Breeders' Association.
C. M. WINSLOW, Secretary.
Which was sent on March 5th to the
Illinois State Fair.
Maine " "
New" England Fair.
New Hampshire Grange Fair.
New Jersey State Fair.
Penns3'lvania State Fair.
Rhode Island ''
St. Louis Fair, St. Louis, Mo.
and later to the
Valley Fair, Brattleboro, Vt.
Cambridge Fair, Cambridge, N. Y.
The Rhode Island, St. Louis, Valley and Cam-
bridge fairs accepted.
At the Rhode Island fair Mr. S. M. Wells entered
two cows, both of which fell below qualifying standard
for one milking, but the second milking of one was suf-
ficiently high :o allow the average of the two milkings
to stand at 3.75 per cent., and the Rhode Island fair
waits instructions as to whether the wording not to fall
below 3.70 per cent, means for either milking or for the
average of the two.
At the Cambridge fair cows were entered b}^ L- C.
Spalding & Son and by E. H. & C. S. Barney, and I
am informed that a cow of Mr. Barney's averaged over
3.70, but that all the cows fell below 3.70 at one milk-
ing, and that the Fair Association ruled that all cows
The St. Louis fair were to offer the special, but as
they have not reported results we are unable to sa}^ what
At the Valley Fair Rose Clovis won first and Rose
Clenna second, both owned by CM. Winslow & vSon.
Rose Clovis showed 4.65 per cent, of butter fat.
Rose Clenna "4.12
Your committee would suggest that if it is thought
best to continue the fair ground tests that the Associa-
tion state whether both milkings shall reach 3.70 per
cent., or whether the average of the two shall reach
3.70 per cent., also that no cow shall be entitled to a
premium making less than i^-^ pounds of butter, figured
on a basis of adding one-sixth to the result of multiply-
ing the pounds of milk oriven b}' the per cent, of butter
fat, this being the Experiment Station standard.
J. D. W. FRENCH, ] Committee on
C. M. WINSLOW, ) Dairy Tests.
It was voted to construe the Rhode Island fair test
of Mr. Wells' cow to be the average of the two milkings
and award him first prize on the cow that averaged 3.75
per cent, butter fat.
HOHE DAIRY TEST.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE.
For some years your committee on dairy tests has
be;:n tr5dng in every wa3^ to obtain reliable statistics of
the dair}^ 3neld of Aryshire cows, but with little com-
parative success. They have urged the breeders to test
their cows. The3^ have devised ways in which it would
be no expense to the owners of cows, and last j^ear the
Association offered $100 in prizes in addition to pa3'ing
all the expense of the test, and still Ave are unable to re-
port any but the same old herds.
Your committee prepared the following circular and
sent to ever}^ owner of five or more AA^rshire cows, as we
believe, in the United States, and four herds responded
as follows :
Geo. H. Yeaton, Dover, N. H.
C. H. Ha5-es & Sons, Portsmouth, N. H.
E. S. Drew, South Burlington, Vt.
C. M. Winslow & Son, Brandon, Vt.
AYRSHIRE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION.
HOME DAIRY TEST, 1 899.
For several years the officers of the Ayrshire Breed-
ers' Association have been tr3dng to obtain reliable rec-
ords of the dairy ability of the A3''rshire cow. While
the response has not been general it has been sufficient
to demonstrate the fact that the A3"rshire cow is natu-
rally a dairy cow of great ability, both in the production
of butter and milk, and that it onl}^ needs a little atten-
tion on the part of her owners to ascertain by test which
are the profitable cows, and having found them, to breed
judicioush^ and the Ayrshire cow will take rank with
the best dairy breeds of the world, if not at the head
The Association, for the purpose of making a still
further attempt to obtain statistics, voted at its last an-
nual meeting to authorize the "Dairy Committee" to
conduct a Home Dairy test for seven consecutive daj^s
to obtain a week's record of quantit}^ of milk, per cent,
butter fat, per cent, total solids and pounds of market-
able butter with the cost of butter per pound, and voted
to offer three prizes for the largest amount of butter ob-
tained in seven consecutive days from a herd of five
cows, $50 to the first, $30 to the second and $20 to the
RULES OF TEST.
Herds of cows will be tested for individual records =
Any breeder of Ayrshires may enter a herd of cows,
w^hich shall at the time of notice of entry stand on the
books of the Association as owned b5^him. He shall in
giving notice of entr}^, furnish the secretary with a full
list of the cows he proposes to have tested, giving name
and herd-book number and stating the time w^hen he
would prefer the test to be made. He may name as
many of his cows for the test as he chooses and may
have as many of those named tested as he chooses, but
no notice of entry will be accepted after December i,
1899. The time of having the test made is optional
with the owner, but notice must be given the secretary
at least one month previous, that arrangements ma}^ be
made for the test. The owner need not name the indi-
vidual cows he enters for the herd prize, until after the
test of the herd has been made. He ma}' also have as
man}' tests, of cows named in the notice, made during
the year as he desires, but shall give notice to the sec-
retar}^ of each test he proposes to have made and shall
himself employ and pa}^ the agent for all tests after the
first test made b}- the Association, as the Association
will pa3^ for only one visit of the agent, and he shall cm-
ploy the same agent the Association employed for the
first test. In making his selection of the five cows for
the herd, he ma^^ select an}' cow that was in the test
made by the Association or by himself under the dire'c-
tion of the Association, as above stated. He shall in
making the final entry, fill out a blank furnished by the
secretary, giving name and number of each cow, her age
and weight, the number of calves she has produced, the
date of birth of last calf, and date of last service by bull
since last calf was dropped. A statement, as accurate
as possible, is requested of tlie method of feeding and
care for at least two weeks previous to test, and during
the seven days of the test a statement of the exact
amount of food given each cow with its local market
cost. If the cows are in pasture, give the local price
per week for such pasturing and an exact account of
an}^ other food given. Also state the local price paid
for butter. The object is to obtain the cost of the but-
ter, but in awarding the prize it is for the large^^t quan-
tity regardless of cost.
The tests will be made as far as possible by agents
from the Experiment Station, or some other disinterest-
ed and competent persons, who will see the cows milked
clean twelve hours previous to the beginning of the test,
and will weigh and test the milk of each cow at each
milking during the test, or he may tCvSt from a compos-
ite sample, being left optional and governed by the nec-
essities of the case, but if he shall make a composite
sample he shall place a seal on each jar of milk each
time after adding milk to the composite sample in the
jar and take such other care of samples as shall ensure
freedom from suspicion of its having been tampered
with. The test shall be made bj^the "Babcbck Tester"
and the "Quevenne I^actometer, " and the quantit}* of
marketable butter shall be calculated by the addition of
one-sixth to the butter fat.
It will be expected that persons entering herds for
the Home Dairy Test will entertain the agent while
making the test, free of charge, and give him every fa-
cility for carrying on test.
J. D. W. FRENCH, North Andover, Mass.,
C. M. WINSLOW, Sec'y, Brandon, Vt.,
Committee on Dair}^ Tests.
GEORGE H. YEATON.
I wish to enter the following herd of five cows, for the prize of-
fered by the Ayrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dair^
Test" for 1899 :
Date of birth
Date of last
Mar. 30, '99
April 23, '99
Mav 2, '99
Jan."' 3, '99
Feb. 16, '99
Jan. 28, '99
d) GEO. H.
May 7, '99
NEW HAMPSHIRE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND THE
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
Durham, N. H., Dec. 2, 1899.
Results of the test of the Ayrshire herd owned by George H.
Yeaton, Rollinsford, N. H., conducted by Mr. Arthur Given and
Mr. C. H. Waterhouse, May 15 to 21 inclusive:
1626.2 12. 4. 64.45 75.09
FRED W. MORSE, Vice-Director.
Five cows, 1626.2 milk, 12 per cent, total solids* 4 per cent,
fat, 75.09 butter.
FEED PER COW FOR SEVEN DAYS.
30 lbs. hay per day at $12 per ton, $1.26
8 lbs. mixed feed per day at $18 per ton. 50.4
8 lbs. gluten feed per day at $18 per ton, 50.4
4 lbs. cotton seed meal per day at $25 per ton, 35.
Seven days' feed for five cows, ' $13.09.0
Cost per pound butter, 17.42 cents.
FEED BEFORE THE TEST.
30 lbs. hay per day at $12 per ton. $1.26
5 lbs. mixed feed per day at $18 per ton, .45
5 lbs. oluten feed per day at S18 per ton, .45
21/2 lbs. cotton seed per day at $25 per ton, .22
CHARLES H. HAYES & SONS,
I wish to enter the following herd of five cows, for the prize of-
fered by the Ayrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dairy
Test" for 1899 :
Date of birth
No. of of
W'glit calves last call
Date of last
1200 6 Mar. 19, '99
1000 7 Mar. 28, '99
1000 6 April 20, '99
1100 4 Mar. 18, '99
1200 6 Feb. 22, '99
May 5, '99
(Signed) C. H. HAYES & SONS.
NEW HAMPSHIRE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE .\ND THE
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
Durham, N. H., Jan. 10, 1900.
Results of the test of the Ayrshire herd belonging to C. H.
Hayes & Sons, Portsmouth, N. H., May 2 to 8. 1899:
Lbs. Per cent. Per cent. Lbs.
Name milk solids fat butter
Ladv Marcia, 381X 12.0 3.3 14.67
Hersa, 295V2 11.7 3.7 12.78
Cromona, 272% 12.2 4. 12.74
The tests were conducted and anal_vses made by Messrs. C. H.
Waterhouse and Arthur Given.
FRED W. MORSE, Vice-Director.
Five cows, 15.16% pounds of milk, 11.79 percent, total solids,
3.6 per cent, fat, 63.47 pounds butter.
COST OF FEED PER COW.
15 lbs. of hay at $8 per ton,
15 lbs. ensilage at $2.50 per ton,
15 lbs. beets at $4 a ton,
15 lbs. brewer's grains at .05 per bushel,
8 lbs. grain mixed at $20 per ton.
Cost of feed for five cows for seven daj-s,
Cost per cow, 20% cents.
Cost of one pound butter, 11.09 cents.
L. S. DREW.
I wish to enter the following herd of five cows for the prize of-
fered bv the Avrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dairv
Test" for 1899 :
Date of birth
Name No. Age
Nett 3d, 12647 6
Miss Edna, 13218 4
Sadie Tascott, 11483 8
Miss Ollie, 12039 6
Ladv Sears, 12641 6
Estimated No. of
1000 4 Mar. 27, '99
1000 2 April 24, '99
1000 6 April 30, '99
1000 4 Oct. 18, '98
1000 4 April 12, '99
(Signed) L. S. DREW.
TEST OF HERD OF MR. L. S. DREW.
May 9-15, 1899.
1357.0 13. 4. 53.67 62.60
Correct, JOSEPH HILLS,
Director Vermont Experiment Station.
Five cows, 1357 pounds milk, 13 per cent, total solids, 4 per
cent, fat, 62.60 pounds butter.
36 lbs. hay per day at $8 per ton, 1 0008
IV^ lbs. gluten meal per da3^ at $22 per ton, .1155
22 ozs. bran per day at $18 per ton, .09
Food for one cow one week,
Food for five cbws one week.
Cost of butter per pound, .0964.
C. M. WINSLOW & SON.
I wish to enter the following herd of five cows for the prize of-
fered bv the Avrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dairv
Test" for 1899:
Date of birth
Est, No. of of
Age weight c'lves last calf
6 1050 4 Aug. 22, '99
Date of last
Sept. 16, '99
Nov. 15, '99
Jan. 1, '00
Oct. 10. '99
TEST OF HERD
of C. M. Winslow & Son, conducted under the direction of the Ver-
mont Experiment Station.
J. L. HILLS, Director.
1209.9 12.69 3.92 47.36
Five cows, 1210 pounds milk, 12.69 per cent, total
3.92 per cent, fat, 55.26 pounds butter.
FEED FOR ONE COW SEVEN DAYS.
40 lbs. hay per day at $8 per ton,
4 lbs. bran per day at $16 per ton,
2 lbs. corn meal per da\^ at $18 per ton,
Cost of feed for five cow^s seven days.
Cost of butter, 13Xc. per pound.
The Secretary — At the meeting of the Executive
Committee, held this morning, it was voted to recom-
mend the continuation of both the Fair Ground and
Home Dairy tests, with the same appropriation as last
3^ear, also to accept the recommendations of the commit-
tee on tests for the changes voted in the rules of the test.
It seemed to the Executive Committee that while the re-
sponse from the breeders and owners of Ayrshires was
surprisingly few that it all the more behooved the Asso-
ciation to do all they could to encourage and urge upon
the breeders of Ayrshires the advantage of these official
tests, in that it now and then gave valuable statistics
for the breed, and encouraged the breeder to improve
his herd by knowing which were the best cows in his
own herd, and where to go for stock with which to build
up and improve in dairy lines. While the announce-
ment that a cow has won the blue ribbon in the ring
may be gratifying, it really means but little, for she ma}^
have been the best type of an Ayrshire cow in the ring,
and she may not, but to win the prize in a dairy test
means just what it purports to be, for the tests are con-
ducted by competent and disinterested parties and the
verdict means something.
Mr. Hayes — I move the acceptance of the report
and the dairy tests be continued with the same appro-
The motion was seconded and unanimoush^ adopted.
The President — A motion is made to appoint
the same committee as last year. Those in favor make
it manifest by saying a^^'e.
The President — Listen to a report of the com-
mittee appointed to draft resolutions in regard to Mr.
Smith's death which will be read by the secretary :
Whereas, it has pleased our Heavenl}^ Father in
His wise Providence to remove from our midst our late
treasurer, Henr}^ E. Smith, we hereby desire to express
our esteem of his sterling qualities, as a friend and
brother member, and also our keen sense of apprecia-
tion of his long and faithful service of thirteen ^^ears as
Treasurer of the Ayrshire Breeders' Association.
We desire that a copy of these resolutions be placed
on record and that they be sent to his family to whom
we extend our sincere sympathy in their great bereave-
Mr. MagiE — Mr. President : I think we, as an
Association, do not fully realize what we have lost in
the death of Mr. Smith. Having been one of the com-
mittee to examine his accounts for some years, it has
given me great pleasure to see in what a plain, business-
like manner he kept the books, so easily examined, and
I sincerely concur in this resolution.
The President — You hear the resolutions. Those
in favor please rise.
(Unanimous rising vote.)
The Secretary — I have the names of candidates
for membership which 1 wnll read : Walter F. Scott,
Brandon, Vt. ; George L- Rice, Rutland, Vt. These I
recommend and I think Mr. Drew will recommend them
The President — I will.
The Secretary — We have the names of Benja-
min F. Davis, South Lee, N. H. ; Chauncey Gleason,
Haverhill, Mass. ; B. F. Barnes, Haverhill, Mass. ; H.
F. Cater & Son, North Barrington, N. H. ; Eugene A.
Holt, Bennington, N. H. ; Frank T. Moore, West Pea-
body, Mass. ; Frederick Kimball, East Haverhill, Mass.;
these are recommended by Mr. Garvin and Mr. Yeaton.
The Vermont Experiment Station, by CassiusPeck,
Burlington, Vt., farm superintendent, recommended by
Mr. Drew and myself; Alfred J. Ta3dor, 257 Broadway,
New York, recommended by Mr. Hayes ; John A. Tay-
lor, Owego, N. Y., recommended by Mr. E. A. Schau-
ten of Cortland, N. Y.
A motion was made that they all be elected.
The President — You hear the motion, that they
all be elected members upon payment of the member-
The President — We will now call for the treas-
The Secretary — Mr. President : At my request
Mr. Winsor prepared a report of the treasurer's (Mr.
Smith's) account, starting with the account as he took
it at the last meeting and adding to that the amount
that is in my hands at the present time not paid over
which I think he will read.
The acting treasurer, Mr. Winsor, then proceeded
to read the report as stated above, it having been aud-
ited by Messrs. Brown and Magie.
AYRSHIRE BREEDERS' ASSOCL\TION IN ACCOUNT WITH
HENRY E. SMITH, TREASURER
Feb. 1. Cash on hand $ 790.19
Sale of herd-book-- 10.25
Deposit in Smithfield Savings bank 2,631.32
Nov. 1. Interest on deposit 112.28
Expense of annual meeting $19.20
Express and postage 1.39
Balance on hand, viz: Deposit in Smithfield
Savings bank $2,631.32
Mavl5. Deposited in bank 300.00
Nov. 1. Deposited in bank 450.00
Interest on deposit 112.28
Cash ." 29.85
Auditor's report of balance in hands of secretary 523.82
Total cash assests $4,067.86
The President — Gentlemen, what will you do
with this report?
Mr. Hayes — I move it be accepted and adopted.
The President — Gentlemen, will 3'ou accept and
(Unanimous vote for its adoption.)
The Secretary — I received the following from
F. A. Converse, secretar}^ of the New York state Breed-
er's Association. Copy of resolutions passed b}'^ New
York State Breeders' Association, D.^cember 7, 1899:
Whereas, such a marked difference in t^^pe of the
Ayrshire cattle exists between several breeders that it
practically forbids an attempt to judge correctl}^ b}" the
comparative system, and that this constitutes a great
source of error and dissatisfaction, therefore be it
Resolved, that the Ayrshire Breeders' Association
of United States and Canada be requested to make their
scale of points more exact and clear, and that they no-
tify the secretary of this Association of their action.
The Secretary — The above request to revise our
scale of points was laid before the Executive Com-
mittee, and they voted to recommend to the Association
that it be referred to the Executive Committee to ap-
point someone to revise. It needs a vote b}- the Asso-
ciation if they wish to have the scale of points revised,
and either appoint a committee themselves or refer it to
the Executive Committee. The lavSt scale of points was
made February 21, 1889, and it seems, for the good of
the Association, that once in ten 3^ears or so, we should
look over the scale of points and see if there is need of
Mr. Hayes — I move it be left in the hands of the
(The motion was seconded and adopted b}^ unani-
The Executive Committee referred it to J. D. W.
French and CM. Winslow.
The Secretary — Mr. President : The Canada
people are ver}^ anxious to get into our herd-book be-
cause our government requires an entry in our herd-
book before the}^ will admit them free of duty. The
Canada people have for several years past been working
over their pedigrees trying to look up the missing links
and trace each animal through definite animals to im-
portation in order that they may be eligible to registry
in our book for the purpose of sales across the line. At
present our government does not look upon a registry
in the Canada Ayrshire books as a sufficient guarantee
of purity of blood, they not having been very particular
about their records and admitting to their appendix the
registry of animals of doubtful purit)^ but now that
ever}^ Ayrshire that is sold to come over the line free of
duty must be registered in our book they have revised
their book and are throwing out all that we will not ac-
cept, in the hope that our government wnll accept a reg-
istry in this book as authorit}^ and save them the trou-
ble and expense of registering in our book.
There have been quite a number of Ayrshires im-
ported from Canada within the past two years which
were obliged to pay duty because the}^ were not eligible
to registr}^ in our book. Then, too, the Canadians are
anxious to have our government accept their book as au-
thority' because there are a good man^?- of their old fam-
ilies of A^^rshires which until recently have had a flaw
in their pedigree and were not eligible to our book, but
now they claim to have them straightened out and elig-
ible. But there are so many unrecorded animals between
the present animals and the imported ones that the ex-
pense of a record in our book prevents a sale when the
record must be made before importation. But if their
book was received as authorit}^ the purchaser would not
find out his mistake until he had brought his animal
over the line and wanted it entered in our book. Thev
wrote me the other day and asked me to bring up before
our Executive Committee the matter of two cows which
they were ver^' anxious to have recorded in our herd-
book, because the}' would not accept in their herd- book
anything that was not eligible to ours. They have got
these two cows down so the}^ are quite sure that each
cow is out of one of two certain cows and sired by one of
two certain bulls, but just which the}^ do not know^ ; but
it is their ver}^ strong opinion that it is b}^ one of two
cows by one of two bulls, and the^^ request us, in order
to admit several hundred of their cattle into good stand-
ing, to make a departure in our herd-book and substi-
tute two dams and two sires for one calf. When the
matter was brought up before the Executive Committee
this m^orning. it was decided to recommend the Associa-
tion to instruct the Secretary that when the}^ can be sat-
isfied themselves that the animal is from one dam and
one sire, by name and number, and will sj record it in
their herd-book, we wall accept them, otherwise not.
But it remains for the Association to settle that matter.
The President — Gentlemen, what do 3^0 u say?
Mr. Hayes — I move it be left as the Executive
(Motion adopted b}' a unanimous vote.)
The Secretary — Mr. President : The Canadians
have felt it was a great hardship to have to pay so much
to get into our books. For a great man}^ years it was
of no great consequence to them whether they got in or
not, but at the present time they are making sales from
Canada over here, sending cattle to buyers, and they
have to be recorded in our herd-book before the}^ can
get in without duty. A great man}^ of their cattle of
late 3'ears, b}^ the strenuous efforts of a good manj^ men,
have been identified so that an animal which formerly
traced back to a herd, or one or two cows has now been
traced to one dam. But it happens ver}' often, in order
to register an animal they have to record 50, 75 or 100
cows, and I received a letter from Mr. Galium the other
day saying it was going to cost $25 to register one calf,
and it was not worth any more than that.
At the request of the secretary, Henry Wade, who
is tr3dng to put their book on a solid basis, I met him
and we agreed on the following terms, provided the As-
sociation acquiesced : We require that a member of our
Association shall pay one dollar for the entrj^ of an ani-
mal and for ancestors, (the record of w^hich is of no val-
ue to him except to connect animals already recorded
as importation) shall pa}' twent3'-five cents apiece. I
arranged with Mr. Wade, if our Association would en-
dorse it, that I would recommend that the}' be allowed,
if they wanted to sell an 3^ cattle over here, to enter their
animal at one dollar and one dollar each for all animals
back of it necessar}' to connect the pedigree in our book
or to importation up to ten animals, and all back of ten
animals at twent3'-five cents apiece. He was satisfied
and said that if we would do that the3^ could have their
cattle recorded. I thought that was a fair offer and we
can afford to accept them under those conditions. It
would make it rather expensive for them an3^wa3'. If
we hadn't done that, the3' would send the animal over
here to the bu3'er and he would get it recorded at twent3'-
five cents, so that I thought on the whole, we would be
mone3" in and I thought it wise to do it : but it needs
the endorsement of the Association.
The President — What does the Association sa3' ?
Mr. Hayes — As I understand it, the Executive
Committee have decided to let them in at one dollar
apiece up to ten, and then twent3-five cents after the
ten. Is that right ?
The President — That's it.
Mr. Hayes — I move it be left as the Executive
Committee has decided.
(iVdopted b}^ unanimous vote.)
The President — The next business, gentlemen,
is the election of officers.
The Secretary — First is the election of president,
who is elected by ballot. Will 3^ou nominate for presi-
Mr Hayes — I move the secretar}-^ be authorized to
cast a ballot for the election of Mr. Drew as president.
(A ballot was cast by the secretary and Mr. Drew^
was unanimously elected.)
Thr Secretary — Mr. "Drew is elected.
The President — Well, gentlemen, if time would
allow, I would make 3'ou a speech, as I am so well
adapted to speech-making. Thank 3^ou for the election.
If you will bear with me another 3^ear, I will be pleased
to serve 3'ou.
The Secretary — The vice-presidents are next
and the president has asked me to read the list.
(List read by secretar}'.)
I have a letter from Mr. Sears, sa3dng he has gone
out of A3^rshires and thought it would be of no especial
benefit to the Association having him remain an officer,
and would suggest someone else be put in his place. I
would name Dr. Turnbull of Monaca, Penn., to take
Mr. Sears' place. We who were at the last meeting re-
member him as a stirring man, who is doing a good
deal in the matter of pushing A3^rshire interests. I
would nominate the same list of vice-presidents with Dr.
Turnbull in place of Mr. Sears.
The President — I heartily concur with the secre-
tar};- as to Dr. Turnbull being in a location that will do
us some good and in a manner that will be useful.
(It was unanimously' voted that the secretar}- should
cast a ballot for the following list for vice-presidents,
Obadiah Brown, Providence, R. I., H. R. C. Watson,
New York, John Stewart, Blburn, 111., Thos. Turnbull,
Jr., Monaca, who were elected.)
The President — Now, gentlemen, who will you
have for secretar}' ?
(It was unanimously voted that the president should
cast one ballot for Secretar}^ Winslow, vvho was
Mr. Brown — We have a ^-oung man who is pres-
ent with us from Rhode Island whom I think eminently
fitted to occupy the position of treasurer. As he is a
stranger to most of you gentlemen I wall sa}' this for him :
He is cashier of the bank of which Mr. Smith was presi-
dent. Our tunds are all in that bank. So far as I
know him, and I have known him from a small bo}", he
is a very eminenth^ qualified young man to fill the posi-
tion. He is an Ayrshire breeder, takes an interest in
Ayrshires. I do noi want to say too much in his praise
for he is present, but from the position he holds and the
company he has kept while with Mr. Smith, I think it is
fit for you to consider him a worth}^ candidate for the
position as treasurer. I take great pleasure in naming
Nicholas S. Winsor to fill the place of our late treasurer,
Mr. Henry E. Smith.
(It was voted that Mr. Brown should cast a ballot
for Nicholas S. Winsor as treasurer, and he was unani-
The Secretary — The members of the Executive*
Committee, whose term expires this 3^ear, are Mr. J. D.
W. French and Mr. John W. Scott. I would like
to name those two gentlemen for the term of three
5'ears. Mr. Scott is a man wdio is doing a great
deal in his state to wake them up on A3a'shires, by
speeches at dair}^ meetings, exhibits at fairs and
articles in his State papers. He is cashier of
the First National bank of Austin, Minnesota, and
has a large farm stocked with Ayrshires. I would like
to repeat one statement that he wrote me the other da}^
and that is, he is not selling au}^ animals that are not
going to be a credit to the A3'rshire Breeders. Any ani-
mal he finds not worth}^ of perpetuating, he disposes of,
which I think is a good recommendation tor any breed-
er. He sells nothing except what is going to benefit
Mr. WelIvS — I thoroughh' recommend Mr. Scott.
I have had a great deal of correspondence with him. He
is a good Scotchman, understands himself thoroughly
and knows how to express his views.
The Secretary — I move that Mr. Wells be au-
thorized to cast a ballot for Mr. Scott and Mr. French.
(The ballot was cast and Mr. French and Mr. Scott
The President — You are in want now of an edit-
ing committee. Mr. Winslow and Mr. J. D. W. French
was our last committee.
(It was unanimously voted that the}' should be
elected for the coming 3'ear. )
The Secretary — Mr. President, at the last meet-
ing in New York we had present a painting of the
cow, Duchess of Smithfield, which Mr. Alvord, chair-
man of the Dair}^ Department at Washington, had paint-
ed, and from that painting had a picture taken — not ex-
actl}^ lithographed— I do not know what it is called, for
publication, and it appeared in a j^earlj^ report of the
Department of Agriculture. He also, I notice, in the
department publications, has a skeleton sketch of this
same cow to show the different points of a dairy cow.
At his request last year, a committee was appointed to
examine the picture and write to Major Alvord any crit-
icisms in regard to it as this was an experiment of the
government. We appointed Mr. French on that com-
mittee — I think Mr. French and Henr}^ E. Smith were
appointed, and the}' evidently reported, because here is
a letter in regard to it.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
BUREAU OF ANIMAI. INDUSTRY, DAIRY DIVISION.
Washington, D. C, Feb. 14, 1899.
J. D. W. French, Esq., Boston, Mass.
My Dear Sir : Please accept my thanks for 3'our
favor of the i ith inst., giving us your excellent criticism
of the oil portrait of the cow. Duchess of Smithfield,
owned b}' this department.
We are plc-ised that 3"ou are so far able to com-
mend our efforts to make a good picture of a typical
milch cow, selected from the A3^rshire breed.
Unable to give the artist a look at the original, or
even a good description of her color and markings, I am
gratified to find we succeeded so well.
Verv truly yours,
HENRY E. ALVORD,
Chief of Dair}" Division.
Mr. French — Mr. Alvord has published that por-
trait as a t3^pical dairy cow. It is a very good picture.
Possibly somebody might criticise the coloring some-
what as being not quite the color of the original animal,
but take it altogether, it is a ver}^ good picture of a
dairy cow, and I think it is a good deal to the credit of
the breed that the Dairy Bureau m Washington should
have taken an Ayrshire cow, of course, it is a well-
known one, the Duchess of Smithfield, as the standard
type of a dairy cow, to go throughout the land as such
and throughout the world. I presume members can
get that report by applying to the Dairy Bureau at
Washington, of which Mr. Alvord is the chief.
The President — I want to say further, gentle-
men, about the Ayrshires : The president of the Ver-
mont State Agricultural societ}', Mr. George Aiken,
wrote a paper the other day. He is a Jerse}^ breeder
and represents the Billings farm. He said in his paper
that what they want of a Jersey is to make it as near the
type of an Ayrshire as possible and then they would
have a dair> ow.
The Secretary — Mr. President : It is said that
a child draws its character from its mother's milk and
this man you speak of is a Scotchman, born on a Scotch
farm, raising x\yrshire cattle. He came over to this
country and had a herd of A3'rshire cattle, but was paid
a very large price to abandon Ayrshire cattle to go into
the Jerseys. His character remains the same — Ayrshire.
Mr. French — I want to say that this is the largest
A3'-rshire meeting that we have had, I think, for a good
many years — over thirty men present, some whom we
have never seen before, I think, at any of our meetings.
They have come here, many of them, from a distance,
a number of them from different parts of New England,
and I think it would do them and us good if they would
tell us some of their experience in breeding Ayrshire
cattle. I think it would be a pity to have the meeting
dissolved without hearing from them.
I hope ever}^ man will go home with at least one
good intention, if nothing more — that he will keep a
milk record of his herd, testing it v;ith the Babcock test
and ascertaining the butter fat. This will help the
breeder more than an3^thing else in finding out which
are the best animals, w^hich the animals he ought to
keep, and will have more influence on the breeding of
his herd than anything else. First, the keeping of the
milk records, these records which the secretar}^ has
here, weighing the milk of ever}^ cow twice a da}' if
possible, and filing those, making up the record for the
3^ear, the number of days in milk, and ascertaining the
butter fat of each cow, and then if he wants to breed
his herd up so that the i\3^rshires will have qualit}^ as
well as quantit3^ raise the calves from cows that pro-
duce the greatest amount of butter fat, then not onl}^
will the Ayrshire breed stand on a level with an}" other
breed, but it will stand at the head. The onh' thing
that has been lacking has been butter fat. The onl}^
way you can ascertain the butter fat, except by the
churn, which it is not always possible to do, is b}^ the
Babcock test. Test your cows two or three times a year
at different times and periods and then go on thatbasis.
It has" been the common custom of many of us in the
past to raise every good looking calf that came along
or came from a good looking cow. If we are to go to
the head, which it looks as though we might do, a little
care and trouble is required on the part of the breeders.
The Ayrshire breed has been going on graduall}' with-
out any boom, increasing in favor, and is steadily rising
in the influence and the appreciation of it b}^ Ayrshire
breeders, and b}^ men outside as well. There are
only a few things wanting and those are the things I
have mentioned, but there is nothing any one man can
do that will help himself more or the breed more than
those two things — keep the milk record and test your
herds with the Babcock test, and then breed accordingl}^
from such cows as ma}^ present themselves after that
test as being the best to raise your calves from.
I hope, Mr. President, we shall hear from the mem-
bers present in relation to their experiences. I would
like to know how many men present keep a milk record,
then I would like to know how many men present have
ever used the Babcock test in their herds. I think it
would be a useful piece of information. I hope at the
next meeting, upon asking these questions, ever^^ man
wall raise his hand.
The President — Gentlemen, do you hear the re-
quest of Mr. French. You who keep a milk record,
please raise your right hand. About six or seven.
Mr. P'rench — How mau}^ tested their herd wdth
the Babcock test.
(In reply to this inquiry, about eight answered in
The President — Mr. Brown, 3'ou have heard Mr.
French's plea to the breeders, and as 3^ou are about as
old a one as we have, w^e w^ould like to hear from you
about 3^our experience with Ayrshires, w^hat \^ou have
to say that is good of their qualities — sa^^ an^^thing as
long as it is Ayrshire.
Mr. Brown — I do not know^ as I am prepared to
make any speech. I have bred A^^rshires for the past
thirt}^ years. As far as I am concerned I am ver}^ well
satisfied wdth w^hat I have raised. I have nothing else in
m\^ herd. The}^ are good breeders, they fill themselves
always with an3^thing you ma3^ give them. The onl3^
objection I have ever had to the Ayrshires is on account
of their teats — the3^ are inclined to have too small teats,
and I so explained to Mr. John Stewart of Scotland,
when he was at m3^ place. "That is the very reason we
are not importing A3'rshires toda3^" I told him. "We
like them w^ell, but we do not like their short teats. " He
expressed himself as being surprised that w^e had bet-
ter A3^rshires in America than the3^ had in Scotland. I
thought that w^as quite a puff. I told him w^e had tried
to breed wdth care from the best cattle, that we bred for
milking purposes, and in order to get the milk easih^ we
bred the long teats as much as we could. He said he
should go home feeling different from what he had, and
thought w^e were on the right track. As I have alread3^
said, I have bred for the past thirty years a good t3'pe
of the dair3' cow% a cow that w^ll give good milk. When
3^ou come to qualit3^ and quantit3^ I refer to Mr. Drew
w^ho lives wa3" up on the mountain, and w^hat he tells
you, he is up so high on the hill, can be heard ever3'--
The President — To show you that I feel a little
cheap m3'Self, we wall call upon Mr. Yeaton, who took
the prize away from me in butter making.
Mr. Ybaton — Mr. President, I do not think I can
sa}^ an3'thing to this Association. I think, perhaps, the
secretary can talk very much better than I can. Mr.
Drew blamed me a little today for feeding so heavily. I
find that the Ayrshire cattle do not do as well unless
they are well fed. Now, in this test that we had in May
before the cattle were turned out to grass, I did give the
cows a little extra feed, but I did not get any of them off
their feed. They all ate what I gave them and looked
for more, and the}^ gave me quite good returns. Mr.
French asks what our cows have done. I will speak of
just one which I mention in my circular, I think. She
gave for the seven days 428 pounds of milk, an average
of 61.2 per day, and her milk tested 3.8, I think- it was.
She gave 18.98 pounds of butter, which is 2.35 pounds
a da}^ for the week. She gave her weight in milk in 18
days for the month of May — that is, her estimated
weight. I judge she w^ould weigh 1,000 pounds and
her milk w^eighed 10 18 pounds. Now, I do not believe
that cow would have given that if she had not been well
fed. It occurs to me that it is profitable, if you want
good returns from a cow, to feed well. I have practised
that for at least the number of years that I have been
breeding Ayrshires. I think our president himself
feeds his cow^s pretty w^ell. A cow won't give 9,000
pounds of milk unless you give it some fuel to live on.
I do not think I will attempt to take up any more of
your time b}^ trying to interest you further, as I do not
think I can do it. I will, however, extend to j'^ou an in-
vitation to come to the town of RoUinsford — there are
two herds there, one beside my own, that of the veteran
breeder, Mr. Garvin. He had a little calf there in his
barn about as big as a poodle dog. I asked him if he
was going to raise it, and he said, "No, I will give it to
you if you want it." This little cow, Annie Bert, has
given me over 58,000 pounds of milk in seven 3^ears.
She is the smallest cow in the barn and the homliest. I
hope you will call on such veterans as Mr. Garvin,
Mr. Garvin was thereupon asked to make a few re-
marks, in response to which he stated his inabilit}' to
make much of a statement, but that he had been a
breeder of Ayrshire cattle for fifteen 3'ears or more.
Mr. Wells was then called upon.
"Gentlemen : You ought not to call on me ever\'
time — you called on me last time. I have been breed-
ing x\yrshire cattle for fort}^ 3^ears and I have not tired
of them yet. I have kept a record most of the time. I
have been supplying milk to the Medical Society, and
thcA^ require that the milk shall be weighed and tested
under the Babcock test every month. It is not required
that I shall feed any particular food, but the cow must
be kept in good, health}^ condition at all times. I have
had cows give as high as 10,000 or 12,000 pounds in a
3^ear, but I think it is a pretty good cow if she gives
6,000, a very good cow. I was talking to Mr. Fuller at
one time about thai: great Jersey cow in Canada who
made a great Jersey record, Mary Ann of St. Lambert.
She had three men to take care of her and she was fed
fifteen or twenty times a da^^ the feed being changed
constantly. She was a large cow. I find that the larger
frame a cow has the more milk she will give ; a small
cow will not give as much milk per 3'ear as a larger
The President — Here is a gentleman who has
often met with us — Mr. Magie of New Jersey, an old
Mr. Magie — Gentlemen, I am very glad to see so
many Ayrshire breeders here today. I think the Ayr-
shire breed is looking up ; it is in our section of the
countr}'. We are raising milk there for the market,
nearby markets largely . Some portions of New Jersey
ship to New York, but our milk and that of many dairy-
men round us go to the cities of Newark, Elizabeth
and Portsmouth, the larger cities. At New Brunswick,
t . ;^3^*;^;
Wt ^VHiitf *
^k), ■ .■ ^ '
where the State Farm is, the}^ are now getting some
A^-rshires. Prof. B., who is at the head of it, is ver\'
much interested in A3^rshires, and has recently bought
some. Some 3"ears ago the}' started a herd of five dif-
ferent breeds for the sake of testing the milk. The}'
were only running a short time before their barn was
accidentall}' burned and they were destroyed, none of
the cattle being saved. But after building they bought
a few more. There was, however, a change in the ad-
ministration of affairs and their dair}- rather ran down.
They have now" placed it in the professor's hands and
he is building tt'Up. The object is to sell the milk in
New Brunswick. We are running two wagons into
Elizabeth. As has been said by Mr. French and our
president, we want to breed for qualit}' as well as quan-
tity. We have bought some other breeds sometimes
when short of milk and find the Ayrshire cows' milk is
the best for the retailer, although we bottle our milk. If
j^ou bottle Jersey milk and 3^ou take the cream off and
let it stand a while, it looks like skimmed milk ; but the
bottom of the A3'rshire milk will look better, is better,
and is the best milk for children's use of an}' in the mar-
ket. We have had Jerse3"s and Holsteins, and occa-
sionalh" Guernse3's, but the A3'rshire is the best. I
know of one instance where a ver3' weak child was
raised with Ayrshire milk alone, and has grown to be
a strong, health3" bo3', and I have known of a great
man3^ such instances. It is an acknowledged fact with
us that the Ayrshire milk is the best for human food.
People generally do not appreciate what good milk
reall}" is for the human famih", as well as for all
}^oung animals in growing them, and I can assure 3^ou,
as has been said, while we have kept some partial rec-
ords, in our business hurry, we have uot kept them as
complete as they should be. We are making tests now,
or did last year, a number of times with the Babcock
tests, and we are weeding out and raising from our best
milkers giving the best qualit}^ of milk.
Mr. French — A year ago this last summ.er ni}-
farm buildings were struck b5' lighting which disorgan-
ized ni}' farm a good deal, and ni}' records and other
things were destro5^ed, so that I am just getting a fresh
start and have not a large number of Ayrshire cattle-^-
some twenty head. I have nothing remarkable to show
at the present time, still I shall be ver}^ glad if there are
any members here who would like to see them. I have
a new barn, which is perhaps w^orth seeing.
A motion was made by Mr. French that the salary
of the secretar}^ be the same as last year, which motion
was unanimously adopted.
The Secretary — It is customary to vote where
we shall hold the next annual meeting. Where will
3'^ou hold it ?
Tjhe President — Why is not Boston a good
After discussing the matter at some length it was
finally voted to hold the next annual meeting in Boston.
It was voted that the list of judges be referred to
the Executive Committee for revision.
It was voted that entries for the next volume of the
herd-book be closed the first of October, 1900.
It is the opinion of the Ayrshire Breeders' Associa-
tion that the men selected by the Agricultural Fair As-
sociations throughout the country, to judge A3^rshire
cattle in the ring, should be men acquainted with A3'r-
shire cattle, and men familiar with the scale of points
and characteristics of the breed.
The Executive Committee have selected the follow-
ing names of men in different parts of the countrj^ whom
we believe to be experts in judging Ayrshire cattle, and
would recommend to Fair Associations as judges :
Alonzo lyibby, Westbrook, Maine.
Charles H. Hayes, Portsmouth, N. H.
George H. Yeaton, Dover, N. H.
W. R. Garvin, Dover, N. H.
I^. S. Drew, Burlington, Vt.
F. W. Spalding, Poultney, Vt.
H. R. C. Watson, Brandon, Vt.
C. M. Winslow, Brandon, Vt.
J. D. W. French, North Andover, Mass.
Obadiah Brovv^n, Providence, R. I.
H. S. Joslin, Mohegan, R. I.
Dudle}^ Wells, Wethersfield, Conn.
S. M. Wells, Wethersfield, Conn.
J. H. Larned, Putnam, Conn.
B.C. Sears, Blooming Grove, N. Y.
George Taber, East Aurora, N. Y.
A. S. Tubbs, Mexico, N. Y.
C. S. Barney, Milford, N. Y.
Frank Converse, Woodville, N. Y.
J. D. Magie, Elizabeth, N. J.
William Eindsay, Elizabeth, N. J.
B. Euther Shimer, Bethlehem, Pa.
J. P. Beatty, Pataskala, Ohio.
John Stewart, Elburn, 111.
C. S. Plumb, Eafayette, Ind.
AYRSHIRE niLK RECORDS.
The following are yields of milk that have been re-
ported of 9,000 pounds and over for 365 consecutive
Name No. A. R. Pounds of milk
Olah, 11471 9020
Belle Hebron, 13013 9084
Rose Sultana, 12072 9172
Roxie, 4498 9191
Rose Deruth, 10346 9253
No. A. R.
Queen oi A\r,
Oueeu of Avr 4th,
Duchess of Srai
Qijeen of Avr 5th,
Pound of miik.
AYRSHIRE BUTTER RECORDS.
There is a long list of records of over 300 pounds,
but we have given only those reported as 400 or over.
Bessie Bell 3d,
Duchess of Smithfield,
Nancy B 2d,
Ren a Myrtle,
(A paper read at the Minnesota State Dairyman's Association
by John W. Scott, Austin, Minn.)
The County of Ayr, not the Count}^ of Aja'shire, as
a recent writer on breeds of cattle hath said : This
count}" in the southwest part of Scotland has given the
name to a breed of cattle noted for their dair}" qualities.
The country w^hereof I speak, is generally low towards
the sea-shore, gradually rising by eas}^ slopes, and wav}'
undulations to a ridge of high or hilh^ countr^^ It has
man}' woodlands and is well watered. The climate is
moist and rather windy, although not severe.
The soil throughout is of moderate fertility. Its
principal crops or products are grasses, oats, wheat,
turnips, potatoes, beets, etc.
Dair}^ is the leading interest, although grazing is
carried on to vSome extent.
Ayrshire in olden times was divided into three dis-
tinct districts, viz : Cunningham, Kyle and Carrick.
Prior to the year 1780, the cattle kept in the districts of
Kyle and Cunningham were a small, ill-fed, ill-shaped
and inferior breed of cattle.
Thus you see, ladies and gentlemen, that we in the
south had no more to boast of than our honorable presi-
dent had in Aberdeenshire.
But to-day, what a w^onderful change has taken
place. For instance, behold the Aberdeen, Angus and
Cruickshank cattle. The}" in Aberdeenshire were bus}'
piling on beef, while away down in Ayrshire they were
hard at work packing butter and cheese. I imagine
"Auld Cruickshank" saying, (were he living) "Shon
Mathieson, hoo ye hae degenerated. Ye Dinna ken a
guide quey when ye see it. What a pit}^ 3'e went awa'
wi' auld mortality to the Isle of Sark, for ye're a' bones
noo instead of guide, honest beef."
There is an old adage in the County of Ayr, which
is characteristic of the District of Cunningham,
"Carrie for a man,
K3de for a coo,
Cunningham for butter and cheese.
It was in this countr}^ that the plowman poet was
born. But perhaps our Honorable Chairman will claim
that it was in Aberdeenshire, as he claims all the cream,
but an allusion is made in one of Burns' letters dated
Nov. 13, 1788, to a heifer that had been presented to
him by Mr. Dunlop, as the finest quey in x\yrshire, he
kept x\5^rshires on his farm at BHisland, and at that time
they had a high reputation,
Ayrshire cattle of toda}^ like the improved short-
horn, orio^inated from various crosses, but there is some
uncertainty as to the early history of their crosses.
It is said that the Holderness were introduced into
the South of Scotland from the North of England, and
it is probable that they may have been used ; again, the
introduction of the Kerry from the coast of Ireland, and
it is further claimed that the Dutch from Holland and
the Alderny from the Channel Islands were also intro-
duced into that country, and these various importations
have given rise to the origin of crosses from those
breeds, but notwithstanding the assumption, there is
more or less of a resemblance to the said respective
breeds, but the breed is undoubtedly descendant of the
Kyloe, or native cattle of Scotland, modified by selec-
tions, and these selections have been aided by crossing
with other distant breeds. Whatever part these breeds
may have had in the origin of the Ayrshire breed, it is
certain that the hard-headed sense of the Scotsman,
that evolved the steam engine into usefulness, had
guided those engaged in moulding a dairy cow, which
for average and general conditions stands without a peer
Since 1805 marked improvements have been made
in this breed of cattle, and in 1836 the Highland Agri-
cultural society offered a premium for the competition
of this breed.
In 1853, for the first time, a recognized standard
was adopted by the Ayrshire Agricultural Association.
In 1866, '68 and '71, the various writers describing
the Ayrshire cow, state that the chief point of merit is
said to be, "a capacious and well set udder."
It is a fact worthy of mention, that the Farmers'
clubs and Agricultural societies in educating the farm-
ers and offering premiums, have done more to improve
this breed, or any other breed of cattle, as it has had
the effect of creating greater interest and inciting strong-
er efforts towards improvement.
These cattle are now scattered throughout Great
Britian, and have been introduced into other countries,
viz : Finland, Norwa}" and Sweden, Holland, Austra-
lia and New Zealand, South America, Japan and Can-
ada, in all of which the}' are highly esteemed for their
We must not overlook our own countr}', for in 1S22
or '28 they were introduced into this country. In 1831
there is some mention made of importations, and in 1837
they were introduced into the New England states b}'
the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agri-
culture. The}^ are now scattered throughout the New
England states, New York, Penns^dvania, South Caro-
lina, California, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin,
and a few herds have been introduced into our own
Minnesota. In Canada this breed has been very popu-
lar with dair3anen, and there being a similarity in the
climate of Canada to our northwest, it would only go to
show that they should become popular wdth us, being a
hardy breed for our climate.
It ma}' be well to direct your attention to this fact :
That for a hundred years here is a breed of cattle which
has been bred in a climate with its cold, bleak weather,
rugged pasturage and scant}^ feed, that has been devel-
oped into a hardy and enduring race of cattle. Here is
a breed, bred, perhaps, for centuries, also in a country
with a climate as severe in many respects as our own
northwest — yes, I say — a country swept by frequent
coast storms of sufficient severity to try the constitution
of the most hardy cattle. Will this not count for some-
thing in the selection of a breed for our farms in the
In 1880 Prof. Sheldon, author of '"Dairy Farming,"
said of the Ayrshire :
"They are wonderful milkers, doing well in nrilk
where most breeds would hardly live, more completely
■•■t:.r . ^
than most, if not all, other breeds, thej^ possess the
property of converting into milk the elements of food.
They are hardy enough to stand severe climates, while
the}' have the faculty of quickly adapting themselves to
The A3'rshire has kept abreast with im.provements
until toda3% fellow dairymen, I have no hesitation in
presenting to 3'our attention a breed of cattle that with
careful selection and breeding, is bound to take the
front rank as a dairy cattle throughout this Northwest.
Every good farmer must keep up with improve-
' xcnts, and if he has that in mind his motto will be,
"Get There," whether in breeding cattle or tilling the
Dr. Sturtevant, a noted breeder and writer on Ayr-
shire cattle, says : "The Ajashire has a superabund-
ance of nerves ; she is ever read}^ to employ them upon
demand in self-defense or in self-support ; she asks lit-
tle beyond a fair chance, yet all this nature in her is in
reserve, and she does not use it wantonl}^ to disqualify
her to be the pet of the household. She responds readily
and appreciates good treatment, her looks appeal to ones
intelligence to accord it to her. ' '
- The A^-rshires are of medium size. The cows aver-
aging 1,000 pounds. They are short-legged, fine-boned
and very active. They are wedge-shape generally,
wide and low development of the brisket, insuring good
constitution. The}^ have well developed hind parts,
long, broad and straight, and deep at the flank. AH
good specimens have well arched ribs, giving room for
their digestive organs. When in milk they do not carrj^
a pound of extra flesh. In color the}^ are red, brown or
white, or a mixture of these colors, each color being dis-
Again Mr. Peer, a large importer and one of the
prominent judges at the Toronto Industrial exhibition,
and other eastern agricultural exhibitions, writes re-
centh^ : ^
ON THE MODERN AYRSHIRE.
"The best of their kind are the best in the world."
That's a Scotchman's estimation of an up-to-date A^-r-
"Although I am not an A3'rshire breeder, I must
sa3^ there is small chance of an argument with the
Scotchman, except I should like to make this amend
ment, 'the best of the kind are the best all-round dairy
cow^s in the world.'
"When you call on a Scotch breeder it is of no. use
to ask him how much milk a cow gives. He does not
know, or only says, 'I have never heard an}^ complaint
of that coo.' If you go to the dairyman and ask him,
he is not going to point out to a customer the best que}',
for that is the sort he doesn't want his master to sell.
"I remember once asking a Scotch breeder why it
was the3^ did not go in for testing their cattle and giv-
ing them milk records. 'A3'e mon,' he replied, 'but
ye'r na' thinking o' the liars ye would be making o' the
Scotchman.' Then looking at me sl3d3' he added, 'ye
must na lead us into temptation.' Then I thought of
the great amount of temptation that breeders in the
United States are called upon to withstand when pub-
lishing records. I had nothing to say. As my friend,
Mr. Howie, often said, 'A coo is a coo and that's a' aboot
it,' which is equivalent to saying, if a cow is a ^ood cow
she will show it, and a man who knows his business can
tell without leading his neighbor into temptation to lie
about her performance.
"I am informed that the ist, 2d and 3d prize cows
in the ring of cows at S3^racuse this year were all over
sixty pound cows, and they looked it. He ends by say-
ing : 'To my mind they are the highest and most per-
feet utilit}^ cow that has ever been produced, all in spite
of their rare beaut}' and style.'
"Before closing, Mr. Chairman, I wish to make a
few remarks as to the qualities of the Ayrshire, first as
a milk producer and lastly as a neat animal. I do not
wish to weary 3'ou, and I do not want to be led into
temptation, so will pass over a few facts briefly and con-
fine ni3'self to official statements.
"At the British Dairy show in 1879, twelve samples
of milk were tested representing seven different breeds
and three crosses. One Ayrshire, three Jersej^s, one
Guernse}^ one Kerry, one Dexter, one Brittan^^ and two
Dutch cows. Highest on the list ranked the Aj^rshire,
showing the least water and most fat, followed in turn
by the three Jerseys and the others in the order named
"The Ayrshire gav^e 5^2 per cent, butter fat, and
the Dutch cows only 2^/i and 2^2 per cent, butter fat.
At the same show in 1880 an Aj^rshire in competi-
tion with eighteen other cows of noted breeds, 3delded
twenty-five pounds and two ounces of milk and in pure
butter fat 6.82 per cent., and was only beaten by a Jer-
se}^ with 7.78 per cent., which, however, only yielded
for the da}^ sixteen pounds of milk.
At the Vermont Experiment Station in 1895, Rena
Myrtle, H. R. 9530, gave 12,172 pounds of milk and
546 pounds of butter.
At the Vermont State Fair in the fall of 1897, the
average of the 12 A3'rshire cows in the butter fat
test was 4.99 per cent.
At the New Hampshire Experiment Station, with
four cows of each breed, the average result for a full
year test was as follows :
Pounds of milk,
Pounds of butter.
Per cent of butter fat, 4.28
Cost of keeping.
Pounds of butter,
In the report of the New Jerse}' Experiment Station,
experimenting for the most of the time with three cows
of each of the following breeds, the average cost of food
per quart of milk was: A3^rLhire, 1.66 cents, Gurnsey,
1. 71 cents, Holstein F., 1.75 cents, Jersey, 1.91 cents,
Shorthorn, 1.71 cents.
As a cheese cow she will give an average of from
600 to 1200 pounds in a yesir.
The pure Ayrshire cow. Duchess of Smithfield, H.
R. No. 4256, weight 1128 pounds, has a certified record
of 19 lbs., 6 oz. of butter in seven days, and 3aelded 44
lbs. of milk in one da}^ ; 463 3-4 lbs. in seven days ; and
10,748 lbs. in one year. I will now exhibit a picture of
this cow for your inspection, she is an American bred
cow, and some six times removed from importation.
I now come to my last qualit}', which is of the least
importance in dairy cattle, but which counts for some-
thing in the consideration of all the good points of a
breed ; that is, they should feed quickh^, and this the
Ayrshire will do, for when fed for the butcher then all
her energies are directed to meet the demand.
I have another picture here which I will exhibit.
This is a typical Aj^rshire cow. She was farrow at
the time this picture was taken, having been milking
over a year and a half.
Some of 3^ou dairymen wdll take exception to so
much flesh as this cow displays, but this must be said of
the Aj^rshire : that she is always busy, and when not
giving milk she is ever ready to give a good return in
I have a j^oung Aj^rshire in the feed box at present
and it is surprising how rapidlj^ it is piling on beef, and
as my countr3^man (Mr. Aiorton), whom I see in the
audience, will bear me out, that we Scotchmen consider
the Ayrshire meat the choicest. This general utility
cow^ of which I have been speaking has had no booms
as some other breeds have had, but continued to
advance and holds its ground wherever it has been in-
EARLY HISTORY OF THE AYRSHIRE DAIRY
The dairy breed of cows in A3^rshire, now so much
and so greatly esteemed, are not an ancient or indigen-
ous race, but are a breed begun to be formed, first b}^
the inhabitants of the bailliary of Cunningham in that
count}^ within the last forty, and chiefl}^ within the
last twenty 3^ears. It appears, from an adage in the
county of Ayr, that dairy husbandry had not only been
practised in Cunningham, but that the making of butter
and cheese had become the peculiar and distinguishing
boast of the district at a verj^ remote period ; and the
last and present generations of the inhabitants have
shown that they still attend to that branch of industrj^
and have greatly improved on the favorite practices of
But though dairy husbandry has for many ages
past been more attended to in the bailiary of Cunning-
ham than in any other district in Scotland, it was only
during the present generation that an}^ material im-
provement was begun to be made, or even attempted, on
the breed of cows in that district ; and it is only within
the last twenty j^ears or thereby, that that improvement
Every person now of fifty years of age or upwards,
who has paid attention, from their youth, to the cattle
in that district, will remember that the cows in the
bailliary of Cunningham, and in that of Kjde, were gen-
erally, till after the year 1780, a pun}^ unshapel}^, and
* From Harleian Dair}^ System, 1829.
t Mr. Alton's work was bestm in 1815.
inferior breed of cattle, not superior in size, shapes, or
qualities, to those still met with in the higher parts of
Clydesdale, Peebleshire, or those in the islands of Arran
and Bute. They were even inferior to these, from not
being nearly so well fed as cattle generall}' now are in
every district, except in some parts of the North High-
The cows then kept in the districts of Kyle and
Cunningham w^ere of a diminutive size, ill-fed ill-shaped,
and 3delded but a scant}^ return in milk ; they were
mostly of a black color, with large stripes of white
along the chine or ridge of their backs, about their
flanks or on their faces. Their horns were high and
crooked, having deep ringlets at the root ; the plainest
proof that the cattle were but scantily fed. The chine
of their backs stood up high and narrow ; their sides
were lank, short and thin ; their hides thick, and
adhering to the bones ; their pile was coarse and open ;
and few of them ^nelded more than three or four Scots'
pints of milk per day, when in their best plight ; or
weighed when fat more than from twelve or sixteen to
twent}^ stones avoirdupois., sinking offal.
It was impossible that, these cattle, fed as the}^ then
w^ere, could be of great weight, well shaped, or 3'ield
much milk. Their onl}^ food in winter and spring was
oat-straw, and w^hat they could pick up in the fields, '
to which they were turned out almost every da}'^ ; with
a mash of weak corn and chaff daily for a few days
after calving. And their pasture in summer was of the
very worst quality, and eaten so bare that the cattle
were half starved. The land w^as then under such bar-
barous courses of cropping, and so much overcropped,
that, when turned to pasture, it yielded little else but
weeds, and a few natural grasses of the worst qualit)^ ;
and that coarse pasture was so much overstocked, and
eaten so bare, that the cattle were half starved, and had
the aspect of starvelings.
A wonderful change has since been made in the
condition, aspect, and qualities of the A3'rshire dairy
stock. Thev are not now the meagre unshapely
animals they were about fort}^ 3^ears ago ; but have been
completely changed into something as different from
what the}^ were then, as any two breeds in the island
can be from each other. They are almost double the
size, and 3aeld about four times the quantity of milk
that the Ayrshire cow^s then yielded. Formerl}- they
were not of anj^ specific breed, nor uniformity of shapes
or color, neither was there an\^ fixed standard b}' which
the^^ could be judged. But now the}' are generalh' of a
brown and white color, in mixed patches ; and rules
have been adopted for determining the purit}^ of the
breed and excellence of their qualit}^
These alterations, although thej- are extensive,
have not been made by merel}' selling the farm stock,
and replacing^ them with a different breed; but the
changes have been effected upon the former breed,
partly by skillful breeding, and still more by better
feeding and treatment.
But though these improvements in the dair}" stock
of Ayrshire were begun and brought to its present
advanced state within the recollection of thousands who
are still alive ; and though I kept a dairy stock for •
some time in the centre of the district where these
improvements were first introduced, and about the time
when they began to be improved, — I have not been
able to trace the commencement of them to an}^ partic-
ular person or family.
About the year 1760, or between that and 1770,
some noblemen and gentlemen who resided in the
eastern and southern counties of Scotland, procured
cows of some English or Dutch breed, which were much
larger in size than any other then in Scotland ; and
when these were well fed, on the sheltered and improved
lands round the seats of their owners, the}' 3delded far
more milk than the native cows. It was their greater
size, and the superior quality' of milk they 3'ielded, that
induced these noblemen and others to purchase them ;
and wherever their feeding in Scotland corresponded to
what they had been accustomed to eat, their owners
were not disappointed. But wdien these large cows
were turned into pasture that was much inferior to that
on which they had been reared, they fell short in milk-
ing, as all cows that are not well fed will do.
I am really uncertain as to the district or countr}-
from which these stranger cows were brought. The}'
certainly were denominated Dutch cows when first
introduced into A^-rshire. But from their being of a
brown and white color, I am disposed to believe the}'
were of the Teeswater breed.
Neither have I been able to discover who it was
that first introduced them into the bailliary of Cunning-
ham, nor to point out all those who did so. John
Dunlop, Esq., of Dunlop, brought some of these
English or Dutch cows to his byres at Dunlop House in
Cunningham, soon after the year 1760. As they were
there provided with the best of pasture, as the dairy
was much attended to in that neighborhood, and as the
'improved breed of the mixed broi'/n and white color
came into vogue about Dunlop and Stewarton sooner
than in any other part of Cunningham, it is likely that
Mr. Dunlop 's were among the first of the stranger breed
that reached Cunningham.
The Earl of Marchmount, about 1750, purchased
from the Bishop of Durham several cows, and a bull of
the Teeswater or some English breed, all of a brown
color, spotted with white ; and his lordship kept them
sometime at his seat in Berwickshire. Bruce Campbell,
Hsq., then factor on his lordship's estates in A^-rshire,
carried some of that breed to Sornbeg in Kjde, where
the}" were kept some time, and their progeny spread
over different parts of i\.3^rshire. A bull of that stock,
after coupling with man 3^ cows on the estate of Cessnock,
was b}^ Mr. Campbell sold to John Hamilton, Esq., of
Sundrum, and raised a numerous offspring in that
quarter of Ayrshire.
John Orr, Esq., of Borrowfield, about the 3^ear 1767,
sent from Glasgow, or from some part in that neighbor-
hood, to his estate of Grougar, A3'rshire, several fine
milk-cows of a much larger size than any then on that
estate. One of these cost six pounds, which was more
than twice the price of the best cows then in that quarter.
As these cows were well fed, the3^ 3delded a good return
in milk, and the farmers in that neighborhood were
eager to procure their calves, in hopes of obtaining
similar returns. Cattle of the same appearance were
about that time brought to Eglinton, Loudon, and to
the seats of other noblemen and gentlemen in Ayrshire :
and as most of those were of the same color, brown,
spotted or freaked with w^hite ; as all of them were larg-
er, and when duh'- fed yielded much more milk than
the native breed, — their calves were reared by such as
could procure them, and bulls of that breed, or even of
their color, were preferred to all others. From these,
or from crosses of them with the native cows, the whole
district has been stocked ; and the breed has attained
such celebrity, that they have not onh^ supplied the
counties of A3^r, Renfrew, and greatest part of Lanark,
but, for about twenty 3'ears past, colonies of the improv-
ed breed have been carried from Ayrshire to every coun-
ty of Scotland and to many counties of England.
HISTORY OF THE AYRSHIRE BREED OF CATTLE.*
By the late Sandford Howard.
January 1, 1863.
The breed of cattle now known as the Ayrshire un-
doubtedly originated in the county of that name in Scot-
land, but by w^hat special means it was formed cannot
be particularly told. Youatt (1835) sa\^s : "A century
ago there was no such breed in Ayrshire or in Scotland"
and he asks, "did the [present] Ayrshire cattle arise en-
tirely from a careful selection of the native breed?" add-
ing, " If they did, it is a circumstance unparalleled in
the histor}^ of agriculture. The native breed may be
ameliorated by careful selection ; its value ma}^ be in-
calculably increased ; some good qualities ma}^ for the
first time be developed : but yet there will be some re-
semblance to the original stock." A comparison of the
modern breed with the description given by Aiton of
the cattle which he says occupied Ayrshire fifty years
before the time when he wrote (1806), will show that
the difference is great. He says: " The cows kept in
the districts of Kyle and Cunningham [districts o± Ayr-
shire] were of a diminutive size, ill-fed, ill-shaped, and
they yielded but ascant}^ return in milk; the}^ were
mostly of a black color, with stripes of white along their
chine or ridge of their backs, about their flanks, and on
their faces. Their horns were high and crooked, . . .
their pile [hair] was coarse and open, and few of them
jdelded more than three or four Scotch pints [six to
eight wine quarts] of milk a day."
Those who are acquainted with the Ayrshire cattle
of to-da37^ will readily admit that they present a wide
contrast with the old stock, according to the above de-
scription of the latter ; and the suggestion of Youatt,
*Published in Vol. I, Herd Record of the Association of Breed-
ers of Thoroughbred Neat Stock, Ayrshire.
that the present breed could not have arisen entirely by
selection from the old, seems reasonable. It follows,
then, that the Ayrshire, like the modern or " improved "
Shorthorn breed, originated in crossing. The question
as to 'the breeds from which it w^as derived will be brief-
ly considered, although the attempt will not be made to
give precise details on this point.
Various accounts represent that the Earl of March-
mont, sometime between 1724 and 1740, introduced to
his estates, in Berwickshire, some cattle, conjectured
(their history was not positively known) to be of the
Holderness or Teeswater breed ; and that, not long af-
terwards, some of the stock was carried to estates be-
longing to the same Nobleman, in that part of Ayrshire
called Kyle. But perhaps the main nucleus of the im-
proved breed was the " Dunlop stock," so called, which
appears to have been possessed by a distinguished fam-
ily by the name of Dunlop, in the Cunningham district
of Ayrshire, as early as 1780. This stock, was derived,
it is said, at least in part, from animals imported from
Holland. The Dunlop cows soon became noted. Raw-
lin (as quoted by Youatt) , who wrote in 1794, speaking
of the cattle of Ayrshire, sa5^s : "They have another
breed, called the Dunlop, which are allowed to be the
best race for yielding milk in Great Britain or Ireland,
not only for large quantities, but also for richness and
quality." This, though extravagant praise, perhaps,
shows that the stock possessed remarkable qualities at
that early day. It was, indeed, held in great esteem
still earlier. In Youatt' s treatise, it is mentioned, when
speaking of the catlle of Dumfriesshire, that the poet
Burns, when he occupied a farm near the city of Dum-
fries, "not content w^ith the Galloway breed, introduced
some of the w^est-country cows, which he thought
would produce more milk." In the poet's published
correspondence, allusion is made, in a letter dated
Nov. 13, 1788, to a heifer which had been presented to
him b}^ the proprietor of Dunlop House, as "the finest
que}^ in Ayrshire." Mrs. Dunlop, it will be remem-
bered, was a special friend and correspondent of the
Colonel lye Couteur, in a paper on the Jerse}^ or
Alderney cow, published in the Journal of the Roj-al
Agricultural Society, refers to a statement by Quayle,
that the Ayrshire was a cross of the Shorthorn and
Alderney ; and adds himself that ' 'there is a consider-
able affinit}^ between the two breeds." Rawdin also
sa^'S, in reference to the Ayrshire breed : "It is said to
be a mixture b}^ bulls brought from the Island of
Alderney with their own or the old race of cows."
Martin sa3'S : "At some period or other there has
evidently been a cross with the Durham or Holderness,
and perhaps also with the x\lderney." Professor Low,
in his "Illustrations of British Quadrupeds," sa3^s :
"From all the evidence which, in the absence of
authentic documents, the case admits of, the dairy breed
of Ayrshire cows owes the characters which distinguish
it from the older race to a mixture of the blood of the
races of the continent and of the dairy breed of
So far the authorities quoted have doubtless given
the main facts in regard to the originals of the present
Ayrshire cattle. But there is evidence that the present
leading type of the breed was formed, in part, b}" an
infusion of the blood of the K3doe, or West Highland
"As a further explanation of the preference given by Burns for
the "west-country cows," the writer would mention that, in 1858,
he had several interviews with the poet's sister, the late Mrs.
Begsf, of Ayr, in one of which she stated that her brother, during
his occupancy of the farm of Ellisland.near Dumfries, kept a dair^-,
and made considerable quantities of cheese. Thus his efforts to
procure the A^^rshire cow shows that they had, even at that time,
a high reputation for this object.
breed. This appeared, in tlie first instance, probably,
in what has been called the Swinley variet}^ The
facts, which the writer has obtained in Scotland in
regard to it, are substantially as follows : Theophilus
Parton, of Swinley farm, near Dairy, A5'rshire, about
forty to fort3^-five years ago took great pains to establish
a herd of what were deemed the best A5^rshire cattle,
into which he infused a strain of the West Highland
blood, the particular degree of which is not publicly or
generalh^ known. The Swinley stock differs from the
older Ayrshire in having a shorter head, with more
breadth across the ej^es, more upright and spreading
horns, more hair, and generally better constitutions.
They are also somew^hat smaller boned than the old
stock, though, from their superior S5mimetry and greater
tendency to fatten, the}^ are fully equal to the former in
weight of carcass when slaughtered.
The following points, given by the A3^rshire
Agricultural Association, 1853, "as indicating superior
quality," will give an idea of the standard for Aj^rshire
cattle, as recognized b}^ the leading breeders : —
Head short, forehead wide, nose fine between the
muzzle and the eyes, muzzle moderately large, eyes full
and lively, horns widely set on, inclining upwards and
curving slightly inwards.
Neck long and straight from the head to the top of
the shoulders, free from loose skin on the underside,
fine at its junction with the head, and the muscles
symmetrically enlarging towards the shoulders.
Shoulders thin at the top, brisket light, the whole
forequarter thin in front, and gradually increasing in
depth and width backwards.
Back short and straight, spine well defined,
especially at the shoulders, short ribs arched, the body
deep at the flanks, and the milk veins well developed.
Pelvis long, broad, and straight ,' hook [or hip j
bones wide apart, and not much overlaid with fat ;
thighs deep and broad ; tail long and slender, and set
on a level wnth the back.
Milk-vessel [udder] capacious, and extending well
forward, hinder part broad, and firml}^ attached to the
body, the sole or under surface nearl}^ level. The teats
from tw^o to two and a half inches in length, equal in
thickness, and hanging perpendicularly^ ; their distance
apart at the sides should be equal to about one-third
the length of the vessel, and across to about one-half
I^egs short, the bones fine and the joints firm.
Skin soft and elastic, and covered with soft, close,
and wooll}^ hair.
The colors preferred are brown, or brown and
white, the colors being distinctly defined. Weight of
the animal, when fattened, about fortj^ imperial stones,
sinking the offal (that is 560 pounds), the quarters or
From w^hat has already been said, it wall be
understood that the dairy is the leading object with the
breeders of iVyrshires. At the same time, the fact has
not been overlooked that to breed and perpetuate a
profitable dairy stock, regard must be had to hardiness
and strength of constitution, and also to such fattening
tendencies as will insure a profitable return from calves
fattened for veal, from steers reared for beef, and for
cows which, having served their turn in the dair^^, are
at last dried of their milk, and prepared for the
shambles. The importance of these properties is not
sufficiently regarded by keepers of dairy stock in this
country. The remark has not unfrequently been heard
that the ''looks of a coav are nothing." People who
hold this absurd notion will never be distinguished for
breeding profitable dairy stock. Even if milk were the
sole object, it would be impossible to preserve a breed
possessing superior qualities, in this respect, without
giving attention to those points of form which denote
strength of constitution. It has been well observed
by Magne, that, in the breeding of dairy stock, we
should "make choice only of animals possessing the
twofold character of general vigor ^ and activity of the
The leading breeders of Ayrshire, in Scotland,
have followed these principles to some extent, if not to
the full degree to which they should be observed.
Hence they claim a high rank for the breed in reference
to general usefulness. Alton, speaking of what the
Ayrshire cow would do, says : "She yields much milk,
and that of an oily or but3'raceous or caseous nature,
and after she has jaelded very large quantities of milk
for several years, she will be as valuable for beef as any
other breed of cows known ; her fat shall be 'much more
mixed through the whole flesh, and she shall fatten
faster than any other." Whatever may be said in
regard to the extent of these claims, it will be admitted
that they indicate the confidence which was long ago
placed in the breed in regard to the properties
mentioned. Youatt, who wrote twenty-five years after
Alton, says: "The breed has been much improved
since Mr. Alton described it. " It is thirty years since
Mr. Youatt made this remark, and in this time the
breed has been still further improved in reference to
general usefulness. I have been assured by some of
the most experienced breeders in Scotland that, while
nothing has been lost on the score of dairy properties,
considerable has been gained in hardiness and thrift,
and in the faculty of giving a greater return, both in
milk and flesh, for the food consumed. Of course it is
the return obtained, in proportion to the food eaten,
that constitutes the true criterion of value in all animals.
In Scotland, the calves of the Ayrshire breed that
are not wanted for keeping up the breeding or dair^^
stock are either fattened for veal or turned for beef at
an earl}^ age. The larger portion, perhaps, of the males
are killed for veal. In fact, in some districts veal is an
article of considerable importance, and the abilit}^ of
Ayrshire cows to make fat calves is considered one of
the excellencies of the breed. Thus, Haxton observes:
"For all medium soils and climates throughout the
United Kingdoin, there is no breed equal to the
Ayrshire for profit, whether the produce is converted
into cheese, butter, or veal.'" A portion of the males
are castrated and fattened when about three to three
and a half years old. Scotch farmers, who are in the
practice of fattening stock of various breeds, assured me
that A3^rshire steers of this age fattened to as much
profit as an}', reaching the weight of 700 to 800 pounds
the four quarters, and afforded beef excelled in quality'
only by the Galloways and the West Highlanders.
At present the Ayrshire cattle have not been tried
in America to a great extent. There have been various
importations, mostly made within the last twent}^ 3^ears;
and so far as there have been such trials as would
justif}" a conclusion in regard to their merits, they have
answered all reasonable expectations. The leading
object in keeping them here is the same as it is in
Scotland, — the dairy ; but their ability to fatten readil}^
and make beef of good qualit}^ should be taken into
consideration in estimating their value. In regard to
the latter property, but few trials have as yet been
made here. Most of the males have been kept for bulls,
and the females have seldom been fattened till too far
advanced in 3- ears to breed. It may be worth3^ of
consideration, W'hether it would not be an object to
give some good steers of the breed a fair chance to show
what they could make in beef at three to four 3^ears old.
It is also desirable to ascertain what are the
capabilities of the breed in regard to the performance of
labor. On this point we are without any evidence from
abroad, as oxen are not worked in Scotland. The
results of the few trials that have been made with full-
bloods have been highly favorable in reference to the
qualities of the breed for this purpose. Judging by
their points, there is no reason why Ayrshire oxen
should not be equal to any others of their size for any
kind of labor. They have clean, firm legs, well placed
muscles, and are remarkabl}^ quick walkers.
The advantages of a Registry, or Herd Book, for
this breed of cattle, are too obvious to require argument.
For the Shorthorns, Herefords, and. Devons registers
have been prepared, and the benefits which have been
derived therefrom are such as will insure their continu-
ance . An accurate record of the pedigrees of animals,
together with a recced of such pre^^'ums as they may
•have taken, cannot fail to*afford a gu-Kk_ u -^ :tent,
in breeding 'with reference to special objects ; the
principle that "like begets like" being admitted as a
general law. The subject of publishing a Herd Book
for Ayrshires, in Scotland, has been agitated on several
occasions, but down to the present time no direct action
has been taken on it. The enterprise of the American
breeders of this variety of cattle, in taking the lead in
this matter, is highly creditable, and, if properly
follow^ed up, will be sure to bring a just recompense of
C. M. WINSLOW.
I am occasionally inquired of b}' persons un-
acquainted with Ayrshire cattle: "Are Ayrshire cows
profitable cow^s for a milkman ? " "What are the}^ for
butter cows ? " "Are the\" quick growing, and do they
make good beef cattle ?" "What kind of a cross are the}'
on Jerseys ? "
I AYill try to answer the above questions in the
following article :
AYRSHIRES FOR THE MIEKMAN.
All the breeds of 'cattle that are of any special
value show a tendenc}' to excel in some one line of
product, and, w^hiie the}' ma}' be prett}' good in several,
are extra good in one definite line.
If I were asked to give my personal opinion of the
place where an Ayrshire cow would do her best and be
the most profitable to her owner, I should say in
supplying milk for retail trade in towns and cities,
because she is a medium sized cow which is acknowl-
edged to be the size best adapted to economical
production. * She is a tough, hardy cow, seldom having
anything ail her, either in body or udder. She has a
vigorous appetite, not at all dainty in her food, eating
with a relish whatever is placed before her, good or
She is a rapid feeder and soon gets her fill and
goes to chewing her cud, which she is always doing in
a very rapid manner even while being driven along
the road, and I have often seen them when being
started into a run, keep on chewing as they ran.
If there is any food in the pasture, either good or
poor grass, browse, or weeds, the Ayrshire cow will find
it and get her fill.
She is a very uniform and persistent milker, drying
off slowly and milking well up to calving.
She is quiet and pleasant in her disposition, if
kindly treated or if let alone, but will resent abuse.
She is intelligent, quick to learn and of a retentive
memory. Can easily be taught to take the same place
in a stable and will alwa3^s go to that place until moved
to another. She is not easil}^ disturbed at milking
time, pays no attention to noise and gives her milk as
readily to one milker as another. She is a very
economical producer of milk, giving a large amount of
good qualit}' for the food consumed. Official tests have
shown her to produce 4 per cent, milk at a cost of less
than two cents per quart on an average.
The milk itself is particularl}^ adapted to the
various requirements of the trade. It is produced at a
small cost, is of good quality for inspection, has a good
bod}^ to it and never looks blue, has good keeping
quality and will bear transportation without churning
or souring. Will, after standing over night, easily
remix the cream into the milk, and when once remixed
will not readily rise again. The milk is particularh'
adapted to table use and for food for invalids and
^children, being attractive looking and evenly balanced
in casein and butter fat, making it a complete food and
easily digested. Another peculiar qualitj^ of the
Ayrshire milk is that the curd instead of being leather}^
and tough is easil}'- crumbled to pieces, which renders
it much more easily digested.
There is no milk so healthy as Aj'-rshire milk, and
people with w^eak digestive organs, and young children,
thrive on it and are uniformly free from stomach and
I have just received the report of the Vermont
Experiment Station for 1899, where the}^ have a herd of
59 Jersey, and high grade Jersey, and three A^^rshire
cows. The report shows an average of 5296 pounds of
milk for the 42 cows, and an average of 6879 pounds
for the Ayr^hires. The average cost of 100 pounds of
milk for the whole herd is 93.4, and for the A5r5hires
64.5, which w^ould make the Ayrshire milk cost a
fraction over i 1-2 cents per quart. The}^ state that the
cost of milk is from the cost of food laid down in the
barn, but that the roughage is rated at prices more than
high enough to cover cost of raising and harvesting in
While the Ayrshire seems by nature adapted to the
production of milk to be used on the table and for food
in its original form, still she is no mean butter cow^ her
milk being rich in butter fat, but as the cream rises
slowl}^ it is much more profitable to use a separator,
for, wath a separator the cream is as readily extracted
from Ayrshire milk as from any other, and there is no
noticeable difference in the churnability of Ayrshire
cream from that of an}' of the butter breeds.
The report of the Vermont Experiment Station for
1899, just received, with a herd of 39 registered and -
high grade Jerseys and three Ayrshires, gives the
average cost of one pound of butter for the whole herd
at 15.6 cents, and 14.7 cents for the Ayrshires, making
the Ayrshires produce both milk and butter at a less
cost than the Jerseys.
The average proceeds from the sales of butter from
the whole herd was $80.55, and from the Ayrshires
$77.71. While the average of the Ayrshires for butter
fell below the Jerse3^s $2.84, thej^ averaged 1583 pounds
more milk, which for feeding purposes would more than
offset the $2.84 less butter, making the Ayrshire the
more profitable as a butter cow taking the extra milk
At this same Station, a few years ago, an Ayrshire
cow, Rena M^^rtle, made a record of 12172 pounds of
milk and 546 pounds of butter in one year, being the
largest yield made at the Station by an^^ cow of any
My opinion is, that next to supplying milk for the
trade the Ayrshire cow is particularly adapted to
supplying sweet cream for the trade because she gives
a large quantity of smooth, even, cream that is superior
for table use and for the manufacture of ice cream.
We do not claim the Ayrshire to be a beef animal
or even a general purpose cow, but as she is of fair size
and an easy keeper, she will pay the cost of raising
whenever it is desired to turn her into beef. She has
heavy hind quarters and thick loins, and her meat is
nicel^^ flecked with tallow even as a two year old.
The steers, pure bred and grades, mature early and
are of fair size, and are as profitable for beef as it is
possible for a dairy breed to be.
I have seen Ayrshire oxen and they appeared to be
good ones. They were of fair size, handsome looking
and sprightly, and were said to be tough and enduring.
TOP CROSS ON JERSEYS.
A favorite cross seems to be that of an Ayrshire
bull on high grade Jerseys, the result of which appears
to produce a cow larger than the Jersey with more
hardiness, not so nervous as the pure bred Jersey,
giving more milk, and making a good all-round dairy
This cross began to be tried several 3'ears ago and
there is a continual call for Ayrshire bulls for this
We, the undersigned, breeders of Ayrshire cattle,
recognizing the importance of a trustworthy Het-d Book
that shall be accepted as a final authorit}^ in all questions
of Pedigree, and desiring to secure the co-operation of
all who feel an interest in preserving the purit}-: of this
stock, do hereby agree to form an Association for the
publication of a Herd Book, and for such other purposes
as may be conducive to the interests of Breeders, and
adopt the following Constitution : .
This Association shall be called The Association of
The members of the Association shall comprise
onl}^ the original signers of this Constitution, and such
other persons as maj'- be admitted, as hereafter provided.
The officers of the Association shall consist of a
President, four Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, a
Secretar^^ w^ho, together with six members of the
Association, all chosen by ballot, shall constitute an
The President, Vice-Presidents, Treasurer and
Secretary shall be elected annually.
The six members who make up the balance of the
Executive Committee shall be elected as follows : Two
members for one 3'ear ; two members for two years, and
two members for three 3^ears, and hereafter two
members shall be elected each year for a term of three
The Treasurer shall present at the annual meeting
<of the Association a full statement of his accounts,
audited b}^ two members of the Association, appointed
by the Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee shall, under the general
direction of the Association, prescribe the manner in
which the business of the Association shall be conducted;
shall have general control of all matters pertaining to
its interests ; shall have authority to appoint an Editor
of the Herd Book, and may fill any vacancies occurring
among the of&cers. The office of Secretary, Treasurer,
and Editor may be filled by the same person.
The Treasurer, Secretary, and Editor shall receive
compensation for their services, to be fixed by the
Association. The Treasurer shall give such bonds as
may be required b}' the Executive Committee.
The annual meeting of the Association shall be
held each year, at such time and place as shall be
vlesignated by the Executive Committee (of which
notice shall be sent to members at least one month
previous) , for the discussion of questions of interest to
the members, and for the election of officers for the
ensuing 3'ear. Special meetings of the Association ma}^
be called by the President or by the Executive Com-
mittee or at the written request of ten members.
Twenty days' notice must be given and the object of
the meeting announced in the call, and no business
other than that specified in the call shall be transacted
at the special meeting. Time and place shall be
determined in same way as annual meeting.
At all meetings of the Association members may
vote in person, or by proxy, or they may send their
ballots by mail to the Secretary, whose duty it shall be
to vote the same and to acknowledge their receipt. At
least twent}'^ members present, represented by proxy, or
written ballot, shall be a quorum for transacting
Onl}^ breeders of Ayrshire cattle shall be eligible
for membership, and members shall be elected at an}^
regular meeting of the Association ; also by the unani-
mous written consent of the Executive Committee at
any time between the annual meetings, subject to the
following conditions :
Each applicant for membership shall be recommen
ded by one or more members of the Association, as a
trustworthy and careful breeder ; and no new member
shall be admitted if objected to b}" any officer of the
The Secretary shall notify the candidate of his
rejection, or in case of his election that he will be
admitted as a member on signing the Constitution and
paying the initiation fee.
An applicant who has been rejected shall not be
voted on again until two years from the date of his
rejection, unless b}^ the unanimous consent of the
officers of the Association.
Each member shall pa}^ an initiation fee of twenty -
five dollars. These fees shall constitute an Association
Fund to defray the expenses of publishing the Herd
Book, and other charges incidental to the organization
of the Association and to the transaction of its
No officer or member shall be authorized to con-
tract any debt in the name of the Association.
The Herd Book shall be edited by an Editor
appointed for that purpose, under the control and
supervision of the Executive Committee, and shall be
published only with its official approval.
The charge for entry of the Pedigree of each
animal belonging to a member of the Association shall
be fixed by the Executive Committee, but shall not
exceed one dollar, except for an animal two years old.
Animals not belonging to mem^bers of the Associa-
tion may be entered in the Herd Book upon the
payment of twice the amount charged to members.
The Herd Book charges shall be appropriated to
the examination and verification of Pedigrees, and the
preparation of the Herd Book, which shall be published
by the Association and shall be its property. The price
of the Herd Book shall be determined by the Executive
Committee. The Editor shall keep on file all documents
constituting his authority for Pedigrees, and shall hold
them subject to the inspection of any member of the
Association, and shall deliver them to his successor in
Should it occur at any time that any member of the
Association shall be charged with wilful misrepresen-
tation in regard to any animal, or with any other act
derogator}^ to the standing of the Association, the
Executive Committee shall examine into the matter ;
and if it shall find there is foundation for such a chars^e,
the offending member may be expelled by a vote of
two-thirds of the members of the Association, present
or represented, at any regular meeting.
This Constitution may be altered or amended by a
vote of two-thirds of the members present or represented
by proxy, at any annual meeting of the Association.
Notice of proposed alterations or amendments shall
be given in the call for said meeting.
1. Onh^ such animals shall be admitted to the
Herd Book as are proved to be either imported from
Scotland or descended from such imported animals.
2. All animals hereafter imported, to be eligible
to registr}^ in the Ayrshire Record, must previous!}' be
recorded in the A3^rshire Herd Book of Scotland, and
an application for registr}- must be accompanied b}^ a
certificate of registr\^ duh^ signed by the Secretar}' in
Entries of calves imported in dam must be accom-
panied b}^ the certificate of registry of sire and dam in
the Scotch Herd Book, also certificate of bull service,
signed b}^ owner of bull.
3. No animal not already named and entered in
some Herd Book at this date, shall be accepted for
entry under a name that has already been offered for
entry ; also, the affix, ist, 2d, and 3d, shall apply only
to calves of the cow bearing the name used ; not to her
grandchildren, nor an}^ other animal.
4. The breeder of an animal shall be considered
the one owning the dam at the time of her service b}^
5. No Pedigree will be received for entr}- from
anyone except the breeder of the animal offered, unless
it is accompanied b}" a certificate of the breeder or his
legal representative, indorsing the Pedigree.
Entries of calves, sired by bulls not owned by the
breeder of the calf, shall be accompanied by^ a certificate
of bull service signed by owner of bull.
6. All animals sold, in order that their progeny
may be registered, must have their successive transfers
duly recorded. Records of transfers will be made onh'-
on the certificate of former owmer, or his legal represen-
7- A transfer-book shall be kept b}^ the Editor, in
which all changes of ownership shall be recorded.
8. The Editor shall keep a record of the deaths of
all animals which ma}-^ be sent to him. (And breeders
are requested to forward the same, stating cause, etc.)
g. The fees for recording are one dollar for each
animal recorded by and in the name of a member of the
Association, being either bred or owned b3^ him, and
two dollars for animals over two 3^ears old at the time
Double the above rates are charged to those not
A fee of twenty-five cents will be charged for
recording ancestors necessary to complete a pedigree to
importation or to cattle already in the Ayrshire Record.
Transfer fee twenty-five cents. iVll the above fees
should accompany the entry or transfer papers to insure
10. An individual membership shall be continued
after the death of a member in the settlement of his
estate until the same shall be settled and then the
membership shall cease. In case of corporations, the
corporation may continue as a member so long as the}^
are interested in the Association, and shall be repre-
sented b}^ such person as may be designated by the
President and Secretar}- of the Corporation.
11. These Regulations may be altered, amended
or added to, with the consent of two-thirds of the officers
of the Association and Executive Committee.
PRICE OF BOOKS.
Each Vol., I to XII inclusive, postage prepaid, ma}^ be
obtained of the Treasurer, N. S. Winsor,
Greenville, R. I., price, $2.25
Milk record blanks, per 100, 1.50
Blanks for registering and transfer blanks, free,
on application to Secretary.
An Act to Incorporate the Ayrshire Breeders' Association.
It is hcr^eby eiiaded by the General Assembly of the State
of Vermont ;
Sec. I. J. D. W. French, James F. Converse,
Alonzo Libby, F. H. Mason, Obadiah Brown, Henry K.
Smith, C. M. Winslow, S. M. Wells, H. R. C. Watson,
James Scott, Gcorge A. Fletcher, Charles H. Ha3'es,
John Stewart, their associates and successors, are con-
stituted a body corporate b}^ the name of the "A^^rshire
Breeders' Association," and by that name may sue and
be sued ; may acquire by gift or purchase, hold and
convey real and personal estate, necessarj^ for the
purpose of this corporation, not to exceed twent3^-five
thousand dollars ; ma}^ have a common seal and alter
the same at pleasure.
Sec. 2. The object of this corporation shall be to
publish a herd book, and for such other purposes as
may be conducive to the interest of breeders of
Sec. 3. This corporation may elect officers and
make such by-laws, rules and regulations for the
management of its business as ma}^ be necessar}^, not
inconsistent with the laws of this State.
Sec. 4. This corporation may hold its meetings at
such time and place as the corporation ma}^ appoint.
Sec. 5. This act shall take effect from its passage.
Speaker of the Ho2ise of Representatives.
LEVI K. FULLER,
President of the Senate.
Approved November 23, 1886.
BBENEZER J. ORMSBEE,
(A true copy.)
Attest : E. W. J. Hawkins,
SCALE OF POINTS OF AYRSHIRE BULL.
(Adopted February 21, 1889.)
The points desirable in the female are generally so
in the male, but must, of course, be attended with that
masculine character which is inseparable from a strong
and vigorous constitution. Even a certain degree of
coarseness is admissible ; but then it must be so exclu-
sively of masculine description as never to be discovered
in a female of his get.
1. The head of the bull may be shorter than
that of the cow, but the frontal bone should
be broad, the muzzle good size, throat nearly
free from hanging folds, eyes full. The
horns should have an upward turn, with
sufficient size at the base to- indicate
strength of constitution 10
2. Neck of medium length, somewhat arched,
and large in the muscles w^hich indicate
power and strength 10
3. Forequarters — shoulders close to the body,
without any hollow^ space behind ; chest
broad, brisket deep and well developed, but
not too large 7
4. Back short and straight ; spine sufficiently
defined, but not in the same degree as in
the cow ; ribs well sprung, and bod}^ deep in
the flanks 10
5. Hindquarters — long, broad and straight ; hip
■ bones wnde apart ; pelvis long, broad and
straight : tail set on a level with the back ;
thighs deep and broad 10
6. Scrotum large, with well developed teats in
7- Legs, short in proportion to size, joints firm.
Hind legs well apart, and not to cross in
8. Skin yellow, soft, elastic, and of medium
9. Color, red of any shade, brown or wdiite, or a
mixture of these — each color being distinctly .
10. Average live weight at maturit5^ about 1,500
11. General appearance, including style and
movement — • 15
12. Escutcheon, large and fine development 3
SCALE OF POINTS AYRSHIRE COW.
(Adopted February 21, 1889.)
The following scale of points for the Ayrshire cow
was adopted — being similar to the scale adopted in
Scotland in 1884, and changed in a few points to render
them applicable to this countr}^
1. Head, short ; forehead, wide ; nose,, fine
between the muzzle and eyes ; muzzle, large ;
eyes, full and lively ; horns, wide set on,
inclining upwards 10
2. Neck, moderatelj" long, and straight from the
head to the top of the shoulder, free from
loose skin on the under side, fine at its
junction with the head, and enlarging sym-
metrically towards the shoulders 5
3- Forequarters — shoulders, sloping; withers,
fine ; chest, sufficiently broad and deep to
insure constitution ; brisket and whole
forequarters light, the cow graduall3^ increas-
ing in depth and width backwards-. -•-. 5
4. Back, short and straight ; spine, well defined,
especially at the shoulders ; short ribs,
arched ; the body deep at the flanks 10
5. Hindquarters, long , broad and straight,
hookbones wide apart, and not overlaid
with fat ; thighs, deep and broad ; tail long,
slender and set on a level with the back...... 8
6. Udder, capacious and not fleshy, hind part
broad and firmly attached to the body, the
sole nearl}^ level and extending well forward;
milk veins about udder and abdomen well
developed ; the teats from 2 1-2 to 3 inches
in length, equal in thickness— the thickness
being in proportion to the length — hanging
perpendicularly, their distance apart at the
sides should be equal to one-third of the
length of the vessel, and across to one-half
the breadth 30
7. Legs, short in proportion to size, the bones
fine, the joints firm 3
8. Skin, 3^ellow, soft and elastic, and covered
with soft, close, woolly hair 5
9. Color, red of any shade, brown or white, or
mixture of these — each color beinof dis-
tinctly defined 3
10. Average live weight, in full milk, about 1000
11. General appearance, including style and
12. Escutcheon, large and fine development 3
OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION.
L. S. DREW,
South Burlington, Vt.
OBADIAH BROWN, H. R. C. WATSON,
Providence, R. I. Brandon, Vt.
THOS. TURNBULL, JR., JOHN STEWART,
Monaca, Pa. Elburn, 111.
Secretary and Editor.
CHARLES M. WINSLOW,
NICHOLAS S. WINSOR,
Greenville, R. I.
S. M. WELLS, J. O. MAGIE
Wethersfield, Conn. Elizabeth, N. J.
J. ANDREW CASTERLINE, C. H. HAYES,
Dover, N.J. Portsmouth, N. H.
J. D. W. FRENCH, JOHN W. SCOTT,
No. Andover, Mass. Austin, Minn.
C. M. WINSLOW, J. D. W. FRENCH,
Brandon, Vt. No. Andover, Mass.
riEHBERS OF THE ASSOCIATION.
Adams, A A Garnet, Kansas.
Allan, Andrew. Montreal, P. Q.
Angell, Edwin G Providence, R. I.
Arnold, George W Warren, R. I.
Ayer, H S Columbus, Pa.
Babcock, F M . Gouverneur, N. Y.
Bacon, P K Campello, Mass.
Ball, A P Derby Line, Vt.
Barney, C S Milford, N. Y.
Barnes, N Middle Hope, N. Y.
Beach, Frederick H Dover, N. J.
Beatty, J P Pataskala, Ohio.
Bell, George H Rome, N. Y.
Bement, George East Oakland, Cal.
Betts, Henry Pittsfield, Ohio.
Birnie, Charles A Long Meadow, Mass.
Blodgett, H W Waukegan, 111.
Blodgett, J W East Saugus, Mass.
Boise, Enos W Blandford, Mass.
Bowkcr, George H Barre Plains, Mass.
Bowen, Edward S Providence, R. I.
Boyer, R A Catasauqua, Pa.
Bo3mton, C H Lisbon, N. H.
Bradford, J H, Supt Monson, Mass.
Bradley, G C Watertown, N. Y.
Brainerd, L • St. Albans, Vt.
Brayton, C N South Wales, N. Y.
Brodie, Hugh Rural Hill, N. Y.
Brown, Obadiah Providence, R. I.
Brush & Rowley Northport, N. Y.
Bryant, George E Baldwinsville, Mass.
Burke, Joseph F Morristown, N. J.
Burnett, John W. Salem, N. Y.
Butterfield, Jerome F Montrose, Pa.
Buttrick, C A Liberty Falls, N. Y.
Byrne, Christopher Friendsville, Pa.
Calumet Woolen Co Uxbridge, Mass.
Campbell, John S New York Mills, N. Y.
Carr, Lewis Providence, R.I.
Carrons, Robert M Washington, Pa.
Cass, George L McGraw^ville, N. Y.
Casterline, J Andrew Dover, N.J.
Choate, Charles F Southboro, Mass.
Clark, C W^ Guymard, N. Y.
Clark, Franklin P Sudbury, Mass.
Clark, N E • Potsdam, N. Y.
Clarkson, T S, Jr Potsdam, N. Y.
Cloud, James and Son Kennet Square, Pa.
Cochran, M H. Compton, P. Q.
Cochran, T Allman Baltimore, Md.
Coldren, J N lou^a City, Iowa.
Connecticut Insane AvSylum.. Middletown, Conn.
Converse, J F Woodville, N. Y.
Cook, Howard • Beloit, Ohio.
Cookingham, H W^ Cherry Creek, N. Y.
Cooper, Albert • Java Village, N. Y.
Cornell, A M Altus, Pa.
Cornell, F P Sylvania, Pa.
Coutts, Peter Mayfield, Cal.
Crane, Fred Roselle, N.J.
Crane, John Union, N. J.
Crane, J H & Sons Toledo, Ohio.
Crayton, B F & Son Anderson, S. C.
Crissey, Warren Great Barrington, Mass.
Crozier, William Northport, N. Y.
Curtis, L W^ Globe Village, Mass.
Davidson, George Fairfax, Que.
Davis, L D Newport, R. I.
Dearborne, A J West Falmouth, Me.
Delap, S N lola, Kan.
Doane, Franklin Middletown, N. Y.
Doe, Charles C South Newbur^^, Vt.
Dome, Elmer J Johnstown, N. Y.
Drew, L S South Burlington, Vt.
Drummond, James Cote Visitation, Montreal
Dunham, J L Sharon, Conn.
Edes, Samuel Newport, N. H.
Ennis, Alfred A Danielson, Conn.
Fairweather, William. Meadville, Pa.
Farley, FC Milburn, N. J.
Farrell, W E Corey, Pa.
Fletcher, George A. Milton, Mass.
Fletcher, Etna J Greenfield, N. H.
Foote, TE Eee, Mass.
*Foss, J M St. Albans, Vt.
French, J D W North Andover, Mass.
Fuller, C C Nelson, Ohio.
Garvin, W R , Dover, N. H.
Gibb, John E Quebec, P. Q.
Gold, T S West Cornwall, Conn.
Greene, B D Stamford, Conn.
Griffin, J H Moira, N. Y.
Hall, Eott .. Gouverneur, N. Y.
Ham, Eugene Verbank, N. Y.
Hamilton Woolen Co Southbridge, Mass.
Harrington, A D Oxford, N. Y.
Harrington, H A W^orcester, Mass.
Harrison, Charles K Pikesville, Md.
Harwood, J A Eittleton, Mass.
Haskins, J P & Son Providence, R. I.
Hawes, Addison S Providence, R.I.
Hawkes, EB Wells Bridge, N. Y.
Hayes, Charles H Portsmouth,^ N. H.
Ha^^es, Charles S Portsmouth, N. H.
Hazard, Isaac Providence, R. I.
Holt, Andy Lyndeboro, N. H.
Hazen, Chester Brandon, Wis.
Healy, C N Exter, N. H.
Heath, GP Northboro, Mass.
Higgins, Asa Petaluma, Cal.
Hill, James J St. Paul, Minn.
Hinson, W G Charleston, S. C.
Hopkins, William H Providence, R. I.
Hopkins, Willis W Aldenville, Pa.
Hubbard, George D Camden, N. Y.
Hunt, AW Brunswick, Me.
Hyde, JB i2oBroadwa3^ NewYork.
Irving, Thomas Petite Cote, Que.
Jackson, Ward R Boonville, N. Y.
Jay, Wm Katonah, N. Y.
Jenkins, JW Vernon, N. Y.
Johnson, Joseph Hartland, Wis.
Jones, D & G Galesburgh, 111.
Jones, Ira W Alfred, N. Y.
Jones, NP Billerica, Mass.
Joslin, H S Mohegan, R. I.
Kemp, Edward NewYork.
Kissel, Gustave Morristown, N.J.
Knowlton, George W. West Upton, Mass.
Krebs, J DeWitt 200 W 118 — NewYork.
Earned, J H Putnam, Conn.
Eawrence, James.... Groton, Mass.
Eeach, Philo Bridgewater, Mass.
Eibby, Alonzo Westbrook, Me.
Eindsay, William Elizabeth, N. J.
Eogan, A Sydney Philadelphia, Pa.
Eorillard, P Jobstown, N. J.
Magie, J O Elizabeth, N.J.
Magone, Daniel Ogdensburgh, N. Y.
Mason, F H Leon, Ohio.
Massey, D A Asylum Station, Mass.
McCrea, Robert Champlain, N. Y.
McFadden, George H Bryn Mawr, Pa.
Merriam, Herbert Weston, Mass.
Millard, L D Taunton, Mass.
Miller, James Pen Yan, N. Y.
Milliken, Charles R Portland, Me.
Munce, R J Washington, Pa.
Nichols, James H Carmel, N. Y.
Norton, W H Allentown, N. Y.
Oliver, James ... South Bend, Ind.
Oneida Community (Limited) Kenway, N. Y.
Ormiston Bros Cuba, N. Y.
Peck, Cassius Burlington, Vt.
Peck, C L Coudersport, Pa.
Pierce, George H Concord, Mass.
Perley, Charles West Boxford, Mass.
Pierce, W R Middleborough, Mass.
Pike, Geo K-- Gouverneur, N. Y.
Piper, Anson C South Acton, Mass.
Pope, Rev G Stanley Grand View, Texas.
Proctor, Fletcher D Proctor, Vt.
Ramsdell, H S Newburgh, N. Y.
Reed, Hammon Lexington, Mass.
Reeve, C McC Minneapolis, Minn.
Rhodes, T F Camillus, N. Y,
Rhome, B C Etna, Texas.
Robinson, Isaac R Wakefield, R. I.
Roode, Joseph Jewett City, Conn.
Russell, Henry G Providence, R. I.
Sadler, Edward W Mont Clair, N. J.
Sage, Charles D No. Brookfield, Mass.
Sanford, Charles Orwell, Vt.
Scott, Jonn W Austin, Minn.
Scliouten, EA Cortland, N. Y.
Scribner, G S Castleton, Vt.
Sears, B C Blooming Grove, N. Y.
Sears, NE Elmwood, Conn.
Seaver, Henr}^ E Canton, N. Y.
Sellers, William Edc. e Moor, Del.
Sherman, Everett B Burrillville, R. I.
Sherman, Eeander..... Harrisville, R.I.
Shinier, AS • Redington, Pa.
Shinier, B Euther Bethlehem, Pa.
Smith, Daniel A Tarkiln, R. I.
Smith, E A Brandon, Vt.
Smith, J B Walden, N. Y.
Smith, Oliver • Chateaugay, N. Y.
Smith, Peter D Andover, Mass.
Spaulding, EC Poultnej^ Vt.
Spencer, AB Rockport, Ohio.
Stevens, Wm Stanford St. Albans, Vt.
Stewart, John Elburn, 111.
Stewart, John Eorne Island of Coll, Scotland.
Stickne^^ William H Brownfield, Me.
Stone, Bela J W^estborough, Mass.
Stowell, E D Black Creek, N. Y.
Stowits, H Abilene, Kan.
Surget, James Natchez, Miss.
Taber, George East Aurora, N. Y.
Taylor, Alfred J Worthington, Mass.
Taylor, John E Oswego, N. Y.
Thorp, John C »•-•• Holyoke. Mass.
Thurber, CS ^ New York.
Tongue, Thomas H...., Hillsborough, Oregon.
Topping, RR Amsterdam, N. Y.
Tschudy, Fred Monroe, Wis.
Tubbs, Ambie S Mexico, N. Y.
Tucker, W G Elm Valley, N. Y.
Turnbull, Thomas Jr Monaca, Pa.
Turner, J C I^ongview, Texas,
Tuttle, M A Hornellsville, N. Y.
Ilnderhill, CS Glenham, N. Y.
Valentine, John R Br3'n Mawr, Pa.
Vaughn, William P Providence, R. I.
Venable, A R Jr Farmville, Va.
Verplank, Samuel Fishkill-on-Hudson,N.Y.
Viner, William Arden, N. Y.
Walker, William I Great Barrington, Mass.
Watson, H R C Brandon, Vt.
Weed, John W Noroton, Conn.
Wells, Dudley Wethersfield, Conn.
Wells, S M - Wethersfield, Conn.
Whitney, C P Orleans, N. Y.
Whittingham, WR Milburn, N. J.
Wilson, A J..... Grafton, Ohio.
Winslow, C M Brandon, Vt.
Winsor, Nicholas S Greenville, R. I.
Winter, NH Cortland, N. Y.
Wolcott, C W Readville, Mass.
Wood, Lucius H Cranston, R. I.
Yeaton, George H Dover, N. H.
Young, Oilman P Grafton, Mass.
Young, James Iv Sterling, Conn.